The first people in America

Until now, the oldest reliable evidence of the stay of people in the New World referred to a period separated from us by 14 thousand years. Some of the earlier finds were questionable, as their age was not accurately determined.

In 1986, the French archaeologists N. Gidon and J. Delibrias, working in the northeastern part of Brazil, discovered the remains of human activity, which, in their antiquity, significantly exceed all those known to this day in America. The place of the find is an overhanging rock used by people as a shelter, although each time and for a short time, but repeatedly. This is evidenced by a number of fire sites located one above the other.

The remains of charred material found here, subjected to radiocarbon analysis, allowed them to be confidently dated and attributed to a period 32 thousand years away from us. At this ancient human site in America, numerous stone tools were also discovered, representing the most diverse cultures, replacing each other over time.

In recent years, there has been evidence of an ever-earlier settlement of the American continent by people along the Bering Sea Bridge - a strip of land that connected Chukotka with Alaska at the time of the fall in the level of the World Ocean. This was indicated by many anatomical, genetic, and linguistic characteristics of the aborigines of America, connecting them with the indigenous peoples of Siberia. Now such hypotheses are objectively confirmed in the results of radioactive dating.

The French expedition also found fragments of stones within the confines of the fires, which had been stained and then crumbled from the walls to the ground. This also speaks for the benefit of the statement that art was inherent in the caveman of America in the same distant time as the people who inhabited Europe.

But there is also another point of view.

According to the most widespread point of view, the first resettlement took place about 11 thousand years ago (although there are hypotheses of an earlier resettlement - see the articles Luzia (fossil man), Nyede Gidon). Their path across the American continent remains a matter of controversy: either from Alaska along the Pacific coast, or along the central part of the mainland through the ice-free space between the Laurentian Ice Sheet and the Glaciers of the Coast Ridges in the Yukon Territory in Canada.

Finds in the XXI century. Human DNA in Paisley Caves in Oregon indicates more likely movement along the coast about 14, 300 years ago. Some finds in Monte Verde (Chile) or Meadowcroft (Pennsylvania) also allow the date of the first resettlement to be shifted to an earlier date. The dating of the find in the Bluefish Caves is highly controversial.

The first widespread archaeological culture in pre-Columbian America was the Clovis culture, also known as the Llano culture, named after the site of a find near Clovis, New Mexico. Dates back to 11500 - 11000. BC e. This culture is characterized by peculiar arrowheads made of flint and hornfels with a grooved base and double-sided surface retouching.

The people of the Clovis culture were engaged in hunting and gathering and wandered in small family groups across North and Central America up to Panama, that is, through an area still covered with melting ice masses at that time. South of Panama, instead of Clovis-type arrowheads, there are fishtail-shaped arrowheads that emerged at about the same time. They do not have a groove; instead, there is a ledge near the lower end, which decreases and disappears at the end, for which the tips are compared to fish tails.

In recent years, there has been evidence of an ever-earlier settlement of the American continent by people along the Bering Sea Bridge - a strip of land that connected Chukotka with Alaska at the time of the fall in the level of the World Ocean. This was indicated by many anatomical, genetic, and linguistic characteristics of the aborigines of America, connecting them with the indigenous peoples of Siberia. Now such hypotheses are objectively confirmed in the results of radioactive dating.

The French expedition also found fragments of stones within the confines of the fires, which had been stained and then crumbled from the walls to the ground. This also speaks for the benefit of the statement that art was inherent in the caveman of America in the same distant time as the people who inhabited Europe.

But there is also another point of view.

According to the most common point of view, the first resettlement took place about 11 thousand years ago (although there are hypotheses of an earlier resettlement - see the articles Luzia (fossil man), Nyede Gidon). Their path across the American continent remains a matter of controversy: either from Alaska along the Pacific coast, or along the central part of the mainland through the ice-free space between the Laurentian Ice Sheet and the Glaciers of the Coast Ridges in the Yukon Territory in Canada.

Finds in the XXI century. Human DNA in Paisley Caves in Oregon indicates more likely movement along the coast about 14, 300 years ago. Some finds in Monte Verde (Chile) or Meadowcroft (Pennsylvania) also allow the date of the first resettlement to be shifted to an earlier date. The dating of the find in the Bluefish Caves is highly controversial.

The first widespread archaeological culture in pre-Columbian America was the Clovis culture, also known as the Llano culture, named after the site of a find near Clovis, New Mexico. Dates back to 11500 - 11000. BC e. This culture is characterized by peculiar arrowheads made of flint and hornfels with a grooved base and double-sided surface retouching.

The people of the Clovis culture were engaged in hunting and gathering and wandered in small family groups across North and Central America up to Panama, that is, through an area still covered with melting ice masses at that time. South of Panama, instead of Clovis-type arrowheads, there are fishtail-shaped arrowheads that emerged at about the same time. They do not have a groove; instead, there is a ledge near the lower end, which decreases and disappears at the end, for which the tips are compared to fish tails.