The difference between a smart guy and a scientist is that a smart guy always claims that he knows a lot, while a scientist usually claims that he knows nothing. Ask an expert in any field, and he will confirm that there are far fewer things in his business that he knows than there are things that he does not know. Humanity has always wanted to learn as much new as possible, which is why there is a science in the world that helps us gradually learn all the secrets of the world. However, not everything is clear to us today. Here are some examples:
1. Why do we sleep and why do we dream?
Every night, almost all people on the planet are accustomed to sleeping and dreaming, and, moreover, the researchers cannot really explain the reason for this. There are, of course, many theories. According to one of them, we dream to put our brain in order or to get rid of stress.
Research shows that sleep can be used as an indication of what may happen to our bodies in the future, such as using dreams to find out if there is a risk of diseases such as Parkinson's or dementia. The results of research by scientists from New Mexico may seem even stranger. It turned out that trained study participants could manipulate their nightmares, thus curing depression.
If we finally understand exactly why we dream, we can make a huge number of incredible discoveries. So far, we are far from the truth. For millions of years now, we have spent a third of our lives in sleep, almost constantly dreaming, but we do not yet know why.
2. What happens after death?
Death is another great secret of our world. No one can say with certainty what happens after our body stops functioning. Scientists are doing everything they can to find out, but they get more questions instead of answers.
The first important problem is the state of clinical death. A huge number of people talk about seeing white light, hearing music, hovering in the air, leaving their body, and much more. This experience cannot be called hallucinations, because they happen when the brain and heart shut down.
3. Why did life arise on Earth?
We've come a long way before learning how to create artificial life. However, we must admit that we do not know for sure why the life that is boiling around us today came into being in this world. The only thing we know is that at a certain point in the history of the Earth, more precisely, 3, 8 billion years ago, organic molecules gave certain chemical reactions, which ultimately led to the appearance of ribonucleic acid and, ultimately, life. What exactly stimulated the molecules to such a reaction remains a mystery to this day. According to one version, all this is the creation of God, according to another version, ultraviolet light is to blame, but no one can answer exactly why this happened.
4. What are the laws of the universe?
Based on observations, we concluded that the universe is expanding, this cannot be denied. It also cannot be denied that it is accelerating. According to the laws of gravity, everything should, on the contrary, slow down, preparing for the "Big Compression" - the process of the reverse Big Bang, but in reality everything is somewhat different. Why is this happening? Many scientists blame this on dark energy and dark matter, which they believe make up most of the universe. However, where this energy and this matter come from is unknown. Moreover, there is no 100% proof of their existence. The universe lives by its own laws, and we just have to guess and make assumptions.
5. Mysteries of history
We are used to seeing history as a kind of narrative that has survived to this day. However, over time, many facts have been lost, leaving huge blank spots in history. Although we know a lot about some eras, for example, the stages of the era of Ancient Rome, many pages of history and even whole centuries are unknown to us, and we can only guess about some things in these pages.
6. Why does a person need art?
Ask any creative person why they draw, write, or engage in other creative activities, and you are unlikely to get at least some intelligible and understandable answer. A person is engaged in creativity, completely not knowing why exactly he is doing it.
For example, there is no evolutionary advantage, as for the species, in what we start to paint. We can only guess why we need art. According to one theory, creative expression - music, sculpture, painting, and so on - is all just the equivalent of peacock feathers, that is, it is needed only to attract the attention of the opposite sex and, therefore, satisfy sexual needs and reproduce.
7. Riddles of dinosaurs
We know from childhood that once upon a time on our planet lived completely different creatures that we are used to seeing today. We have no idea about most of them, since their fossil remains simply did not reach us over the course of so many years.
For example, in order for the skeleton of a dinosaur to survive for millions of years and come down to us, a number of conditions are required. This means that even if we find skeletons of some species, these skeletons are not always complete. The remains of most of the creatures have not survived at all. For example, only a few bones of living creatures that lived in the Middle Triassic period, which lasted ten million years, have survived to us!
8. Ancient literature
Not always we can tell a lot about the most famous writers of the past, whose works are known all over the world. Take, for example, William Shakespeare, one of the world's most widely read authors, whose plays are compulsory in every theater in the world. It is surprising that despite such a celebrity, very little is known about Shakespeare. Moreover, there is an assumption that such a writer did not exist at all, and the works were written by a group of playwrights under a common pseudonym.
Even less is known about the Greek poet Homer, the author of the famous "Iliad" and "Odyssey". More precisely, it is only known that "he probably existed." Also, we are not exactly sure that those of his works that we know today are originals.
9. The force of gravity
We have already mentioned that dark matter can explain why the universe does not obey the laws of gravity. But we forgot to mention that gravity itself also does not obey its own laws. Gravity is the only one of the four fundamental forces that contradicts itself and ceases to function if the body becomes small enough.
In fact, gravity is a real headache for physicists, and some of them argue that it does not exist at all. Every time we make some important discovery, we realize how little we know about the world.
10. Theories about the world change all the time.
If you imagine science as a house of cards, and each new breakthrough theory as a 10-ton iron ball falling on it, you will understand the whole essence of the problem. Around the end of the 19th century, we sincerely believed that we had almost reached the frontiers of knowledge. But at this time, a citizen by the name of Einstein appeared, who published perhaps the most famous formula in history, and all ideas about the world were completely destroyed.
We began to build our ideas about the world from the very beginning, and everything went well until we noticed that black holes were behaving completely differently than we expected. Today we are on the verge of new turns in the development of science. This means that some fundamental concepts can be revisited again.
For example, it is quite possible to use string theory to "prove" that we live in a hologram that is projected from the edge of the universe. Of course, this is not the mainstream theory, but it shows how strange the truth can be.
Thus, nothing makes sense, and you may be just an image that is projected from the depths of space.