Temple of Artemis in Ephesus - included in the 7 wonders of the world. Modern Turkey is rich in its historical treasures and archaeological finds. Lydia is the name of an ancient Greek province that was located on the territory of modern Turkey. Croesus, the last ruler of Lydia, was not only an influential politician of the time, but also a very wealthy man. At that time, every self-respecting ruler built temples and worshiped selected gods in them. Croesus was no exception, in 560 BC he ordered to build in Ephesus, the capital of Lydia, a large temple dedicated to the goddess whom he most revered. According to urban legends, 10 centuries before the construction of the temple, the city of Ephesus was the basis of an Amazon woman, the temple, not least of all, revered her.
Croesus dedicated the temple to the patroness of young girls and animals, the goddess Diana, or Artemis, as the Greeks called her. For the construction of the temple, archery marble and limestone were used in the province, which workers mined in the mountains and delivered to the construction site of the temple.
The peculiarity of the temple was that 120 huge marble columns were used as supports, which support the roof, with a height of each column of 20 meters. The columns were assembled from huge pieces of marble and adjusted, then fastened in the center with a metal pin. After the completion of construction work, the artists began to decorate the temple, who painted the temple in the manner inherent in that time and fashion. Especially for this temple, a full-length statue of Artemis was created, which became the main decoration of the interior decoration of the temple. The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was built according to the laws of classical architecture, and has the shape of a rectangle 130 meters long and 80 meters wide. It was a majestic structure that conquered anyone who saw it. Buildings in his likeness, and the pantheon that has survived to this day, has much more modest parameters. Despite the fact that the temple has not survived to this day, we can imagine the degree of its grandeur from the description of ancient travelers, philosophers and writers who saw this masterpiece of architecture with their own eyes.
The temple stood indestructible until 346 AD, when it was almost completely destroyed by fire. A certain Herostratus, a resident of the city of Ephesus, wanted to leave his name in history in this way, and committed arson. It is noteworthy that on the day of the fire in Ephesus, the great Alexander the Great was born, who, being in Ephesus, ordered to rebuild the temple anew, in its former beauty. The temple stood until the third century AD after which, since the city of Ephesus fell into decay and the temple also became unnecessary. After that, the temple was repeatedly subjected to barbaric raids by the Goths and other European tribes. To date, archaeologists have managed to restore only a few fragments of the walls of the temple and restore one column.