TOP 10 phenomena of thinking

For those who want to be an active participant, and not just a spectator, we have compiled the TOP-10 of the best phenomena for the development of creativity and creative thinking.

Ambiguity effect

The ambiguity effect is a phenomenon in which people make decisions based on what they know about the results. If a person is presented with a choice and knows the result of one of the options, then he will choose it, regardless of how profitable the other option may be. For example, when it comes to investing in the stock market, people will invest in old, well-known stocks first, and not in new technologies that can bring both unprecedented profits and huge losses.

IKEA Effect

Another terrible sweater knitted by my grandmother for the New Year is perceived with a smile and warmth, although you would never buy one in a store. This is a prime example of the so-called IKEA effect. The phenomenon is expressed in the fact that people often disproportionately value the value or value of things, to the creation of which they are related. The phenomenon got its name from the Swedish company IKEA, which sells furniture that must be further assembled by hand. Often, such furniture is more expensive than finished furniture, but it is appreciated because people like to create something with their own hands.


People regard rhymed phrases as more truthful and more accurate. This is also true of catchy phrases that, as they say, "stick to the tongue." For example, participants in the study found the phrase "financial success makes people healthier" unlikely, while the phrase "richer is healthier" resonated strongly. When the slogan of a product rhymes, then that product is more credible.

Cluster illusion

The clustering illusion is when people see patterns in a set of random events, even when there is no relationship between them. Our brains need the coherence of the story it tells itself about the world. Therefore, we tend to look for connection and logic where in reality there is only a set of random events. For example, when in a lottery three draws in a row the number "1" falls out, then for the fourth drawing most people will mark one in the tickets.

Empathy deficit

This is a widely recognized problem. People judge everything "from their own bell tower" and do not try to put themselves in the place of another person. This effect often leads to parents underestimating the needs of their children. Children perceive the world very differently than adults, but adults often forget to take this into account.

Pelzman Effect

Named for University of Chicago professor Sam Pelzman, the effect results in too many safety devices and too many safety regulations causing more accidents and injuries due to a sense of false invulnerability. When a person feels invulnerable, they make more risky decisions. For example, wearing belts and a helmet can lead to more dangerous driving because people begin to feel completely protected.

Fair World Hypothesis

Terrible things happen every day, and often there is simply nothing to be done about it. This leaves people with only one option - to blame everything on the general atmosphere of modernity, to which even obviously bad concepts are attributed.

This is why people assume that women who are victims of sexual or domestic violence are “to blame” or provoke it. Belief in a just world often means that people tend to look for excuses where they cannot be.

Time-saving effect

It is logical to assume that if you drive faster, you will get to your destination faster and save a lot of time. The reality is much more complicated. Psychological research has found that people tend to overestimate how much time can be saved by adding speed. Apparently, the problem is that the brain does not cope with an accurate assessment of speed, since evolution has not yet taken into account the fact that people can move faster than they can run.

Dunning-Kruger Effect

It is a psychological paradox. People who have a low level of qualification make the wrong conclusions, as well as make bad decisions, however, they cannot realize their mistakes due to their low qualifications.

Such a lack of understanding of their mistakes leads to the fact that the wrong people are convinced of their own righteousness. Accordingly, this leads to increased self-confidence and a sense of superiority. Paradoxically, in fact, competent people tend to doubt themselves, as well as their abilities and decisions.

Asymmetric dominance and decoy effect

This effect appears when people choose one of two options, comparing both with the third. Let's give an example of choosing between two restaurants. One of them has very good food, but it's a long way to get there. Another is nearby, but the food is not that good. Quite a difficult choice, right?

Until the third option comes along - a really bad food restaurant somewhere between the original two restaurants. Comparing the first two options with the third completely changes the result. Initially, the question was: the quality of the food or the distance to the restaurant. In the case of the additional option, the question turns into "which restaurant is better than the other two", and the obvious choice is a restaurant in which the food is better than the average restaurant, and he himself is closer to that.