A list of the 10 most famous drug addicts who have taken opiates regularly and over time: opium, laudanum ...
1. Sigmund Freud - cocaine
The original interest in cocaine was medical. Freud first tried cocaine in 1884 and was amazed at its effect: the use of this substance cured him of depression, gave him confidence. In the same year, the young scientist writes an article "On Coca", where he strongly recommends the use of cocaine as a local anesthetic, as well as a medicine for asthma, indigestion, depression, neuroses.
The future father of psychoanalysis published a number of articles on the properties of cocaine, which detailed all the sensations caused by this substance. However, in recent works on this topic, he wrote about it less enthusiastically. This is not surprising, because Freud's close friend Ernst von Fleischl died of cocaine abuse.
Convinced that cocaine would help eliminate morphine addiction, Freud undertook to treat his friend, who was heavily addicted to morphine. But the unexpected happened: dependence on morphine was replaced by dependence on cocaine, an overdose followed, and the patient died.
However, back to Sigmund Freud himself. The scientist so sincerely believed in the "healing" properties of white powder, which supposedly helped him get rid of all his fears and complexes, that he himself became addicted to it. Freud managed to overcome the craving for potion, but it took a lot of time and effort.
2. Andy Warhol - obetrol
Obetrol is not a very common drug and is now better known as "Adderall", a prescription drug only. Both drugs are used to stimulate the attention and performance that celebrities need. An iconic figure in the history of the pop art movement, Andy Warhol, swallowed obetrol pills like regular Tic Tac mints. But the drug has side effects, such as psychopathic seizures, depression, heart problems. But this did not happen by accident. Obetrol is a pill with a quick release of the active ingredient, which, as quickly begins to act, just as quickly and stops (unlike Adderall, it has a prolonged effect). And in order to be constantly "in good shape", what should be done? That's right, swallow and swallow the pills.
3. Miles Davis - heroin
Miles Davis, "Black Prince of Jazz", a great musician, composer and trumpet player of the 20th century, had serious drug problems. During his creative career, Miles had periods when he completely retired from work. And the drugs were to blame. So in the early 1950s, the musician became addicted to heroin and only four years later was able to overcome this addiction largely thanks to the influence of the legendary boxer Sugar Ray Robinson and return to full-fledged creativity.
4. Balzac - caffeine
Many of us can say that we are also addicted to caffeine, and if we don't drink a cup of coffee or a can of Diet Coke in the morning, we will have a headache all day. But this is nonsense compared to the morbid addiction to coffee of the famous French writer. Balzac was a very prolific writer and worked daily for many hours. To keep fit, Balzac drank a lot of coffee, neglecting sleep. He liked to say that a fragrant drink fills his head with many thoughts. It is believed that it was coffee that caused the heart disease, from which the writer died at the age of fifty. He could drink more than twenty cups of the aromatic drink a day.
Nowadays, this addiction to coffee and coffee-containing drinks is called caffeinism (a type of substance abuse). It can lead to serious disturbances in the activity of the cardiovascular, nervous systems, headaches, sleep disturbances, causing nervousness, increased excitability, irritability. A depressed, pessimistic mood arises. So maybe you should reconsider some of your habits?
5. Lewis Carroll - opium
In Carroll's time, opium was called Laudanum, and many people took this alcoholic opium tincture even for mild ailments, such as headaches. Not surprisingly, they became addicted. The English writer Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll, did not escape this fate. He suffered from very severe migraines. Therefore, many believed that Lewis took laudanum because it relieved pain. Moreover, from early childhood, the writer suffered from stuttering, which worried him very much. The drug "helped" Carroll to cope with this complex, soothed him and at the same time gave him confidence. Whatever the real reason, one thing is for sure: Carroll was under the influence of a drug. It is enough just to read his "Alice in Wonderland".
6. Edith Piaf - everything?
It is known that in 1951 the greatest pop singer, the idol of all of France, got into a serious car accident, as a result of which her arm and two ribs were broken. Taking painkillers, she became addicted to morphine, began to take all possible pills. Shortly before this accident, her loved one died in a plane crash, even then Edith Piaf fell into depression and tried to escape reality with the help of alcohol. A friend saved her from suicide. The treatment did not bring the expected result. The singer never got rid of alcoholism and depression. But in spite of everything, she continued to perform. Passion for the stage gave her strength, even when she, already sick with cancer, could not breathe because of the blood rising to her throat.
7. Did you know Faulkner was an alcoholic?
Yes, that same outstanding American novelist and short story writer William Faulkner. And that other equally famous American writers also suffered from this addiction: Francis Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, as well as Edgar Poe, Sinclair Lewis, English poet, playwright Dylan Thomas? Of course you know. It seems that alcohol was the drug of most talented writers. Unfortunately, he was popular not only among men, but also Dorothy Parker, Edna St. Vincent Millay are known for their addiction to alcohol.
8.Maria Callas - kuaalud
The outstanding Greek opera singer was a rather curvy woman, but at the height of her career, she suddenly began to rapidly lose weight, becoming thin and slender. It was said that she was taking Quaaludes, and it was these pills that helped her lose weight. Although Maria herself always claimed that her weight loss was the result of a strict diet.
9. Truman Capote - all kinds of drugs
Truman Capote managed to achieve fame in the writing field. But this same triumph also ruined him. Luxury, a hectic lifestyle, at the same time more stress and haste, led to Truman's strong addiction to alcohol. Even if there was no reason, he always found it. If someone took the bottle away from him, Capote would go berserk. Over the years, he also became addicted to drugs. After the death of Capote, traces of barbiturates, Valium, antiepileptic drugs and pain relievers were found in his blood.
10. Humphrey Davy - nitrous oxide
The great British chemist and inventor, who made many great discoveries in the field of chemistry, decided to prove, while still very young, that nitrous oxide is not a dangerous poison (as American doctors of that time believed). He dared to test the effect of nitrous oxide on himself. When the gas was obtained, Davy began his heroic experiments. Inhalation of nitrous oxide produced such an extraordinary effect on him, causing extremely pleasant sensations and a cheerful mood that he began to repeat them almost daily, becoming more and more convinced not only of the absence of a toxic effect, but also of the invariable intoxicating effect of nitrous oxide and the cheerful hallucinations. Impressed by the action of "laughing gas" (as Davy later called nitrous oxide), he even described in verse all his feelings under the action of nitrous oxide.
Once, when the scientist inhaled five large doses of gas, he immediately lost consciousness and was in this state for about three hours. But he still continued to conduct experiments on himself, which became the cause of his serious illness and death at the age of fifty. Of course, Humphrey Davy himself claimed that he was doing this solely in scientific interests, but his obsession with experiments with gas prompts other thoughts, the painfully pleasant sensations of euphoria are brought by “laughing gas”.