In addition, scientists from the UK, USA, Germany and Portugal analyzed the possible reasons for its early inflationary expansion.
Physicists have built a model that showed that the structure of the vacuum in the early stages of the development of the Universe (before the stage of inflationary expansion) was a network of dense "nodes" and interconnected tubes of force. Scientists believe that these tubes were formed in the process of a QCD-like cosmological phase transition (in thermodynamics, this term means the transition of matter from one thermodynamic phase to another when external conditions change - NS).
The three-dimensionality of space, which we all observe, physicists associated with the topological stability of a network of one-dimensional tubes of force, and the inflationary stage of the evolution of the Universe - with the release of energy that accompanies the expansion of the network of tubes and its cooling.
Thus, the structure of the early universe of physics has been compared to the tangled wires of headphones.
I think this is an idea worth exploring.
- Alan Guth, one of the authors of the inflationary model, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
So far, scientists have not proposed an experimental way to confirm the hypothesis. The researchers built their theoretical calculations on the basis of the Abrikosov - Nielsen - Olesen model, in which the necessary formations arise in the form of string-like solutions of the four-dimensional (in space and time) Higgs theory of a special form.
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) describes the strong interaction of particles - quarks, which is carried out by particles that carry the interaction - gluons. According to the authors, in the early stages of the development of the Universe, there was a single strong and electroweak interaction, from which, at the inflationary stage (the interval of exponential expansion), the strong interaction emerged.
This process is called baryogenesis. It was accompanied by the unification of quarks and gluons into hadrons, as well as the likely appearance of cosmological topological defects (in particular, cosmological strings, walls, and monopoles). At the end of the stage of baryogenesis, the stage of leptogenesis began - the separation of electromagnetic and weak forces from the electroweak interaction.