An article for those who always like to read interesting articles, facts, reviews and just novelties, inventions, then you hit the target, since this article will contain 11 facts about the invention of certain things.
Before the advent of laces, all shoes were fastened with buckles. The first laces appeared in 1790 on March 27, in England. They were created in the form of a rope, at the ends of which there were metal tips, thanks to which it became much easier to thread the lace into the holes on the shoe, and also did not allow it to fray. The date of this invention was miraculously preserved, but the name of the hero, alas, is unknown.
Fork and spoon
The very first prototypes of spoons were created as early as 3000 BC. They were cut out of bones, horns of animals, or molded from clay. Fish bones, heads, sea shells, wood were also often used. The very first silver spoons were short-handled spoons that had to be held in the palm of your hand. They were made for the squad of Prince Vladimir, Red Sun, by his order in 998.
The fork was replaced with a sharp awl, onto which food was pricked and eaten. In the tenth century, in Asia, something resembling modern forks was invented, with only five or more teeth. This invention reached Europe a hundred years later. But, a fork with two teeth, became widespread only in the 16th century.
After the fork appeared, the need to prick pieces of food on the knife disappeared. Therefore, by the end of the 18th century, almost all European countries changed a table knife with a sharp end to a knife with a rounded blade. Although, initially, both the ancient Greeks and the ancient Romans ate with their hands, talking about beauty. Then Ovid, the Roman poet, taught them to eat only with their fingertips. Then they wiped their fingers on the bread. In Greece, a little later, they put on special gloves on their hands, which had hard tips.
The oldest wheel was found in Mesopotamia. It was created about 55 centuries ago. But, until now, the biggest mystery in history is why, when and who first invented it. Loads used to be transported on a device, which today is called a sled. The first wheeled sleds made of solid wooden discs were depicted in a Sumerian pictograph from the 35th century BC.
In the twentieth century BC, the first spoked wheels reached China, India and Europe, which were used in chariots to transport people. They began to be used for the transportation of goods in Egypt. They were first invented on the Asia Minor Peninsula, which today belongs to Turkey, and is the westernmost peninsula of Asia. Wheels and various carriages were most widespread in Ancient Greece, after which - in Rome. Along with the arrival of Europeans in America, wheels also appeared there.
King Minos, the ruler of the island of Crete, used a fish bubble during lovemaking, thereby protecting himself from sexually transmitted diseases. This was about three thousand years BC. According to some, condoms in ancient Rome were made from the muscle tissue of deceased warriors.
For two and a half millennia in a row, they used a linen bag, to which ribbons for tying were sewn so that it did not fall off. This prototype of the condom was invented a thousand years BC, in ancient Rome. Since there was an epidemic of syphilis in Europe in the fifteenth century, condoms became very popular.
Although at that time no one knew that "bags" protect not only from diseases, but also from unwanted pregnancy. The first spermicides, which are used on all condoms today, were a special chemical solution into which a linen tip was dipped before use at the end of the 15th century.
According to one of the versions, the doctor of the English king Charles II, Condom, came up with a way for the king to avoid illnesses from prostitutes and illegitimate children. He created a condom from sheep intestines. In his honor, condoms got their name "Condom" at the end of the seventeenth century.
According to another version - the word originates from the Latin "condon", which means "storage".
Many animal gut condoms have been used multiple times as they are very expensive.
Vulcanization is a process that transforms rubber into rubber (elastic material with high strength) was first discovered in 1839. In 1844, condoms were reborn. In 1919, the first latex condom was invented, which had no rubber odor and was much thinner. A lubricated condom was first released in 1957.
Fish skeletons are considered the very first combs used by the inhabitants of planet Earth. When and where the first comb was created is unknown. But, one of the oldest ridges was found on the territory of Ancient Rome. It was made of animal bone, with a handle, and had eight teeth carved by hand. The denticles are located at a distance of 0.2 centimeters from each other.
Then the ridges were created until the middle of the 19th century from ivory, corals, tortoise shells, animal horns, and of course - from wood.
Turtles and elephants were saved from destruction in 1869 when brothers Isaiah and John Hiatt invented celluloid. At the same time, people got cheaper combs that were very similar to ivory, and to the shell of a turtle, and to corals.
For the first time, paper sheets began to be connected with a ribbon, in the 17th century. An incision was made on each page in the upper left corner. Then they began to rub the ribbon with wax to make it more durable, and to make it easier to insert or remove the sheets that were needed. The first pins were created for tailors to make it easier to connect pieces of fabric while sewing. The first pin-making machine was created by a New York physician, John Ireland Howie. They began to be used for joining paper.
A twisted piece of wire for connecting sheets of paper, first invented by the Norwegian inventor Johan Vaaler in 1899. But it didn't look like today's paper clip at all. Such was invented by the English company "Gem Manufacturing Ltd". But, this invention was never patented by anyone.
Ancient people constructed costumes for themselves in the following way: they used a kind of awl made of hewn stones or thorns, and through the holes they passed the tendons of animals.
In the territories of Western Europe and Central Asia, the first needles with an eye were found, which were made about 17 thousand years ago, from the bones and horns of animals, as well as from stones. The thick veins of palm leaves served as needles in Africa. Threads were tied to them, which were also created from plants. The first thimble and steel needle were created in China, in the 3rd century BC. These inventions were brought to the West by the tribes who inhabited Mauritania - the western part of modern Algeria and the eastern part of modern Morocco.
In Nuremberg, then in England, the mass production of needles began only at the end of the 14th century. The first needle made by mechanized production was made in 1785.
The first scissors were found in the ruins of Ancient Egypt. They were made in the 16th century BC from a single piece of metal. But modern scissors from two crossed blades were invented by Leonardo before Vinci.
The ancient Egyptians took care of oral hygiene as early as three thousand years before the birth of Christ. It was in their sarcophagi that the first prototypes of toothbrushes were found, which are made from tree branches with loose ends.
But, the emperor of China is considered the inventor of brushes. He built the first brush in 1498. The handles of these brushes were made from animal bones or wood, and the bristles were from hair from the nape of wild boars.
In Europe, where goose feather toothpicks were used, and it was not yet customary to brush your teeth, the harsh boar hair was replaced by a softer horse mane at the end of the 17th century. The wealthier used copper or silver toothpicks or simply wiped their teeth with a cloth.
Until the 20th century, the same bristles and animal hair, in particular wild boar, were used for toothbrushes. In 1938, toothbrush bristles were made from nylon, which was invented in 1937. But, since animal brushes were softer than artificial ones, and did not scratch the gums, they were very popular further. It wasn't until 1950 that nylon bristles became soft.
Mankind had to extract fire in a variety of ways: to knock out a spark with a stone, rub wooden surfaces against each other, catch the sun's rays through a piece of glass ... And when it worked out, the burning coals were carefully maintained in clay pots.
The first matches - "dumplings" appeared in Europe in 1805, after the French chemist Claude Berthollet obtained experimentally a substance later called Berthollet's salt. She smeared thin splinters, which ignited after being dipped in a concentrated solution of sulfuric acid.
Pharmacist John Walker, in 1827 created the first "dry" matches. He found that a mixture of berthollet's salt, antimony sulfide and gum arabic (a liquid that is secreted by acacias), applied to a wooden stick and then dried, ignited easily when rubbed against sandpaper. Accordingly, there is no longer a need to carry a bottle of sulfuric acid with you. But the matches smelled awful. He set up the production of these matches, and packed them 100 pieces in tin cases. But, he did not earn much money.
Charles Soria, a 19-year-old French chemist, invented matches in 1830, which consisted of a mixture of phosphorus, berthollet's salt and glue. They ignited when rubbed against any surface, for example, on the sole of a boot and had no smell. But, since white phosphorus is poisonous, these matches were very unhealthy.
Then the chemist Johan Lundstrom realized that sometimes red is better than white, and in 1855, a Swede added red phosphorus to the composition of a match head, and applied it to the outside of the surface of sandpaper. Now they began to light up easily on the prepared surface and ceased to be harmful to health.
In 1889, Joshua Pucy invented a matchbox that contained an "incendiary" surface. But, the patent was given to the American company Diamond Match Company, which came up with exactly the same, only the "incendiary" surface on it was located outside.
The first domestic factory that produced matches was built in 1837 in St. Petersburg.
The first phosphorus matches were brought to Russia from Europe in 1836. Their price for a hundred was a ruble in silver.
The female half of the population had to be extremely inventive during critical days, starting with the cavemen, right up to the beginning of the 20th century. Ladies of prehistoric times used everything - mosses, grasses, algae, sea sponges. Greek women adapted sticks for tampons, on which they wound rags, ancient Egyptians used softened papyrus leaves as tampons, in Japan they used paper, in Africa - bunches of herbs, in Rome - wool ...
In the early 19th century, women began making reusable pads from old cotton rags. They were washed and dried after consumption. Towards the end of the century, someone clever had started making rag pads that looked more like adult diapers. But this product did not reach consumers due to the lack of advertising.
Gauze and cotton wool, as items of personal hygiene, women thought of to use at the beginning of the 20th century. In stores, gaskets began to be sold in the 1920s. They had to be attached to underwear with safety pins or tied to the waist with strings.
In 1936, the first tampon was launched into mass production. But it wasn't until the late 60s that tampons began to enjoy popularity. After 10 years, adhesive tape was invented, and with its help the gasket is attached to underwear to this day. Modern sanitary napkins have a base that contains an absorbent gel. It was invented already in the late 90s.
Who and when invented the first heel is unknown, but it is believed that it was first created by the masters of the Spanish city of Cordoba, in the 17th century. It was they who developed the heels, beveled inward, and "French" - with a waist in the middle. During the Rococo period, the heel visually reduced the foot, moving closer to the center of the shoe.
Over time, the heel changed - wide square for girls dancing a twist, high heels - glasses, and so on.
The famous hairpin was proposed in 1950 by the Italian fashion designer Salvatore Ferragamo. He used a long steel stiletto rod as a support.
A kind of heel was used by oriental horsemen in the 12th century, who used blotches on shoes, which was very practical. Thanks to these blotches, the man's leg was held firmly during the jumps in the stirrup.