"Everybody lies, " says Dr. Gregory House. And he is absolutely right. According to statistics, every person lies two or three times a day.
1. A lie is a statement that obviously does not correspond to the truth.
2. Lies figure in legends, myths and fairy tales. In the Western tradition, lying is a vice that is punished or corrected. In oriental tales, there is often a lie and deceit for salvation.
3. Mythomania, or the Munchausen complex, is a disease due to which a person feels a constant urge to distort the truth. With the help of lies, he creates an alternative reality and, often, sincerely believes in his words.
4. A lie detector or polygraph does not give a complete guarantee of detecting a lie. The readings of the device are based on measuring the pressure and heart rate of a person, but among the liars there are many people who are able to deceive the detector. However, a study by the Federal Homeland Security System showed that modern polygraphs are 96% true.
5. When a person lies, their blood levels of cortisol and testosterone rise.
6. The most "deceitful" country is China. An experiment conducted by the University of East Anglia found that 70% of those surveyed lied to receive the promised monetary reward.
7. Lying can be divided into spontaneous and planned.
8. A spontaneous liar can impersonate himself with a pose, gesture or glance, which cannot be said about a professional liar.
9. Spontaneous lies are defensive lies, usually they arise under the influence of circumstances and are poorly remembered. The speech of a spontaneous liar is characterized by a large number of pauses, reservations and speech errors.
10. The abundance of pauses in a conversation is not yet a sign of a lie. Perhaps the person is just trying to find expressions.
11. A planned lie is well thought out. A person's speech becomes confident, collected, calm.
12. Scientists from the University of Hertfordshire found that men lie more often than women. According to evolutionary psychology professor Karen Payne, the average man lies 1, 092 times a year, and the average woman lies 728 times.
13. Women most often lie about their own condition. The most popular phrase is "I'm fine, " researchers at the Science Museum in London have proven.
14. According to the website HeadHunter, most of the liars work in the trade - over 67%.
15. Research carried out by the University of Amsterdam has shown that more often than not, lies are due to lack of time. People who have considered and made a decision lie less.
16. Compulsive liars have a better and faster brain than people who lie spontaneously. Yaling Young, head of psychological research at the University of Southern California, claims that their brains contain 22-26% more white matter and a stronger prefrontal cortex.
17. Truth Serum, or Sodium Pentatol, is not really capable of making a person not lie. It only removes the psychological filters of a person.
18. One of the famous liars of the XX century - Victor Lustig. He went down in history as the man who sold the Eiffel Tower twice.
19. Identifying a liar by the eyes is almost impossible if he deliberately lies.
20. Most religions consider lying to be a great sin. For example, the Four Noble Truths in Buddhism say that a person should follow the path of self-discipline, avoiding, among other things, lies - unrighteous speech.
21. The Christian faith teaches that a lie is a great sin, for it is said, “He that acts treacherously will not dwell in my house; he who speaks a lie will not remain before my eyes ”(Psalm 100: 7).
22. Islam is one of the few religions that in some cases approves of lies. For example, the eminent Muslim historian and theologian Al-Tabari said: "Lying is a sin, but not when it serves the benefit of a Muslim." Lying in the name of Islam is called taqiyya, and hiding part of the truth is called kitman.
23. Children start lying around the same time they learn to speak. More often than not, this lie is not deliberate. Children often use the same template to answer all the same type of questions, and fantasy makes them believe in what has been said.
24. Even animals can lie, says Stephen Nowitzki, a biologist at Duke University. Research results have shown that almost all representatives of the fauna can lie to each other. For example, shrike birds can warn their relatives about danger with their voice, or they can deliberately use a signal to scare them away from eating.
25. Psychologist Robert Wright in the book "Moral Animal" argues that lies are the engine of human evolution. According to the author, the more developed the communication system, the higher the level of lies in society.
26. Women regret told lies in 82% of cases, men - only 70%.
27. American scientists Mariam Kuchaki and Isaac H. Smith proved that a person is most honest before noon. After 12 noon, the percentage of lies in the speech of the subjects began to grow, reaching a maximum in the evening.
28. There are 6 types of lies - manipulation of quality, manipulation of the amount of information, transmission of ambiguous information, inappropriate information, silence and distortion.
29. When a person lies, he experiences a whole range of emotions, the most striking of which are fear, delight, guilt and shame.
30. The concept of "lying for good" appeared in ancient times. For the policy of noble lies, Plato advocated in the "State".