Pablo Emilio Escobar - the famous Columbia drug trap and the leader of one of the most powerful powerful criminal organizations that have ever seen the light. At the peak of power in the 1980s, he turned his drug cartel to the real empire, which hung horror not only for competitors, but also for entire states, and the field of its activity extended to the whole globe. According to the estimates of contemporaries, Escobar made billions of dollars on drug trafficking, abductions and registered murders, and in his submission was the army of soldiers, recruited from the harmonious criminals and equipped worse than many national army of that time.
But despite its wide field of activity, in the history of Pablo Escobar, it was still under the title "cocaine king" or, if closer to the original, "King of Coke". Until now, anyone failed to surpass it across the illegal turnover of cocaine. According to US Special Services, more than 80% of the total smuggling of cocaine in the world was carried out by Escobar and his cartel. According to the full inventory, which was made after the collapse of the Medellin cocaine cartel and eliminating his key actors, the net value of all assets, as well as movable and real estate, was about $ 30 billion! And caches with money and jewels hidden in homes, once belonging to Escobar, are periodically detected in our day.
Childhood and young years of the future "King Coke"
Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviri was born on December 1, 1949 in the small Columbian town of Rionegro in the family of a modest peasant and school teacher. According to the memories of those who have been familiar with this, a completely honorable family, the young Pabito was an ambitious boy and dreamed of a political career and even all his friends and relatives he said that he wanted to become president. However, the unenviable financial position of the family knows the cross on these endeavors, and the boy, despite his age, understood it perfectly well. Drogging by the desire for a better life, he went through the legendary Colombian "Banditos", which were then composed of numerous legends. So the criminal career of the future "King Coke" began. The first money Pablo Escobar earned, reselling tombstones stolen on local cemeteries. To consider this work too difficult and ungrateful, soon he moved to the shallow street tower and theft of cars. Here, the young criminal acquired the first important acquaintances that helped him get a more serious thing - smuggling. Possessing an outstanding mind and natural commercial vein, he quickly established the case and took a strong position on the smuggled cigarette market.
According to historians, it was this period of his life that became the most training platform that ordered Escobar and gave him experience and skills for further formation in the role of the future king of drug addict.
Already by 1971, Escobar led a large gang, which was incomplete from Medellin's immigrants, where the future drug trap now spent most of the time. Along with smuggling cigarettes, they have been crushed by killings and abductions. So, in the same 1971, an escobar with assistants kidnapped and killed one of the largest Colombian industrial magnates of Diego Echevario. What is interesting, the locals, most of which constituted the poor peasants, expressed great appreciation to Escobaru and provided him with full support, despite the cruelty with which a crime was committed. The following 5 years he was entirely dedicated to expanding his smuggling business and to dive to himself a local drug market, which then managed Chileans.
Formation of the Empire - Plata About Plomo
The next bright episode of his life occurred in 1976, when an officer of the police and a judge was eliminated by the order of Escobar, who issued an order for his arrest. It happened after he caught the smuggling of almost 40 pounds (18 kg) of cocaine. Shortly before that, by order of Pablo, a local drug bandage was killed by Fabio Restrepo, and Escobar took his place, uniting his strength with three other influential drug dealers and creating the famous Medellian cocaine cartel. According to the CIA, he took about 80% of the total turnover of cocaine in the world, subordinate to himself almost all competitors and postponing them 25-30% of the "tax". At the same time, the kartel turned into a mini-state with his intelligence service, armed forces, research laboratories and even an air and underwater fleet. It was a unique phenomenon, since no one has yet enjoyed submarines for systematic drug smuggling to Escobara.
Thus, by the beginning of the 80s Pablo Escobar, it becomes almost the most influential person in Colombia, in fact, possessing full control over all government agencies, including local authorities, Congress, Police and Courts. Due to this, despite all the evidence of the criminal origin of his wealth, no official complaints of Escobaru nomigated.
However, many simply did not have a choice, since, using the weakness of the State Machine, Escobar acted rudely and tough, putting ultimatum to his victims: "Silver or lead" ("Plata about Plomo"). Simply put, those who did not want to take money and assist, dying hard and painful death. Soon there are practically no wishing to resist. In 1982, Escobar was elected to Colombia Congress. Since then, he actually focused in his hands economic, criminal and political power in the country, almost having his dream of childhood.
Care underground and large terror
However, the Triumph of Escobara lasted not long. Already by January 1984, the Minister of Justice Rodrigo Bony still achieved the exclusion of odious congressman from parliament, and then an escobar who had a significant political tolly and that the main thing about the presidency was organized by a large-scale terror to show who the real owner of Colombia . The first thing was eliminated by the main culprit of the exclusion of Escobar from the policy - Rodrigo Bony, who was shot in his car. After this event, a failed politician and part-time, the very bloody gangster Colombia was placed on the "Most Wanted" list, and the police received an official warrant for his arrest.
Once in the underground Escobar no longer hesitated in the choice of methods to counteract his opponents and began to openly maintain the terrorist group LOS EXTRADITABLES. Over the next two years they managed to send more than five hundred mines of the police alone, while the total number of victims was calculated by thousands. They consisted of both competitors and public figures, journalists and everyone else who rested to become on the path of drug addict.
Point of non-return and sunset of the Empire
By this time, the dedication of the cartel began to annoy not only Colombians, but also their closest neighbors, and the scale of Escobar's activities caused anxiety even in the US, which were literally flooded with cheap cocaine from Colombia. The administration of Reagan's president operated decisively and between the two countries quickly signed an agreement on cooperation and joint anti-drug fighting, which had one important point - all caught drug trafficking should be extradited to the United States to serve the sentence there. At first, corrupt and intimidated officials under pressure of gangsters tried to drag the law on the ban on the prohibition of this treaty through the Supreme Court, but the Columbian President Verkhilio Barco imposed his veto, and the total struggle against drug carriers was continued with new forces. As a result, Escobar lost his right hand - Carlos Leder and several other devotees. The Medellian cocaine cartel was inflicted a weighty damage, and the revenge of the drug trap for it was really terrible.
After an unsuccessful attempt to conclude a truce with the authorities in exchange for guarantees of him in the United States, Escobar ordered his killers to execute the policy of Luis Galana, who demanded that the government to take even more hard measures to combat drug carriers, the Supreme Judge of Carlos Valencia and Colonel of Woldemara Contero Police. From 16 to 18 August 1989, all three were killed.
But Escobaru was not enough. Having rehabsed by his power and impunity, he with the help of Los Extraditables made 7 terrorist attacks, there were 37 people who had seven lives, (more than 400 people were mutilated). Further (November 27, 1989), by order of Escobar, a plane was blown up with more than a hundred passengers on board. And although the main purpose of the drug trap was Cears Trujillo - the future president of Colombia (he did not fly through the circumstances by this flight), such a way was chosen intentionally to catch up to even greater fear of the Government of Colombia and forced him to the transaction.
A week later, killers of Escobar made an attempt on the chief of the secret police of Miguel Marquez. The murder way was also chosen as bloody - undermining the bomb. As a result, 62 people were killed and about a hundred was injured. But this Escobar caused a completely reverse effect - if before the specified events in the power corridors there were still many people who wanted to agree, then after it was already considered as a dangerous terrorist and staged a real region.
As a result, only one of the operations, the government confiscated without a small thousand mansions and farms, 710 cars, 367 aircraft, 73 boats and more than 1, 200 units of weapons. Also, a large batch of cocaine weighing 4, 7 tons was also seized.
But, according to historians, an Escobar made one of his most unforgivable mistakes later, when he began to compensate for the losses, trying to set out the huge tribute to him cartels and take away the share of competitors, mercilessly destroying them. If the initially "tax" of Escobar was 25-30%, he tried to increase it to 65-70%, losing many faithful allies.
The last nail into the coffin cover of the cocaine king's empire was driven by a war with a drug carter "Cali". Escobar tried to beheaded him by killing one of the leaders. But Killer did not cope with the task, and in response, the "potassian" cartel dealt with the cousin of Escobara - Gustavo Gaviri. Fistened behind these events of the war of cartels, although she claimed the lives of many innocent people, but it loosened the groupings so much that Escobar turned out to be actually stuck to the wall and was forced to surrender.
La Catedral - Last hope of Escobar
It remains only to guess how much money was listed in the right rooms, but lawyers Pablo Escobar managed to make it impossible. Fugitives-covered from all sides was not only killed when detaining or executed by competitors (after recent events, many of them dreamed of trying to Escobara "Colombian Tie"), but also surrendered to their terms, having traveled from the Government of Colombia to the extradition of the USA . In 1991, he was solemnly conveyed to La Catedral prison, which was built by himself and, in fact, was a luxurious and well-fortified castle.
Inside La Catedral, gardens and ornamental waterfalls were equipped, and the free time "prisoner" spent in a casino, spa centers, bars and a nightclub, which were located right in prison. However, if desired, Escobar could easily go to the city, if he wanted to visit the cinema or football match. He also retained most of his business, leading negotiations on the phone through reliable people.
Moreover, the creation of forces, an escobar even continued to adopted on competitors and not enough devotees. The most intractable brought to him in La Catedral, where he personally tied unfortunate in specially equipped torture chambers. At the same time, according to the Agreement, nor the police nor the army had the right to even approach the prison.
Escobar rock error, flight and death
We show an escobar a little more foresight, he had every chance of becoming a so-called gray cardinal and reach a completely new level. His money and connections were more than enough to partially withdraw their "business" from the shadow, creating a cover for him in the form of legal companies engaged in the production of various kinds of goods. This is exactly what they did more wise and not such greedy and arrogant competitors of Escobara. The latter is used to absolute power and did not want to part with her, which in the end and led him to death.
Having learned that the situation in Colombia was absolutely not changed, and the drug feet that caused so many troubles and continues his work with the same scope, the US government came into rage and rigidly pressed for President Colombia, demanding immediately extradite the criminal in the United States immediately. And on July 22, 1992, such an order was published. But Escobar was already aware of this and calmly left his "prison", hiding in one of the newly acquired mansions. For his head was appointed unprecedented sum at that time - 10 million dollars. Even the country's president would need to work at least two centuries to earn so much money.
Despite the fact that Pablo Escobar again found itself in a siege position, now his affairs were not so bad. And although he again had anger on his governments, lost support for a significant part of the allies and raised the old resentment of competitors, he had one important advantage - absolute support from a simple population, which an escobar for many years generously "attached". Therefore, he did not have any problems with the search for new workers and militants for the personal army. But the "cocaine king" completely lost her and having accepted the erroneous decision to repeat the large terror of the late 1980s.
Thinking that he again would be able to enhance the government and to incline his assistance, Pablo Escobar again began a merciless massacre. On January 30, 1993, they were organized an explosion in Bogota, as a result of which more than two dozen people died and more than 70 were seriously injured. And, most terrible, most of the victims made up parents with children from ordinary working families. This terrorist attack finally spoiled the reputation of Escobar and deprived him of supporting the poor class, and the title "King of Koksa" was replaced by less congestive - "killer of children." From this point on, the days of the greatest drug-fellows were considered.
In addition to the police, competitors and rectifying former associates, ESCobaru began to threaten the new enemy - the organization Los Pepes. If you translate this name-abbreviation literally, it sounds like "people affected by Pablo Escobara." Considering that, because of the bloodthiance of the main boss of the Medellinsky drug carter, more than 10 thousand people were spare with life, there were a lot of such. Each of the dead remained relatives, close and friends who were now eager for revenge.
Literally the next day after a bloody event in Bogota, Los Pepes found a place in which Pablo Escobar was hidden and burned his house. After that, all relatives and friends of drug trap, as well as his nearest associates became the object of hunting. Moreover, unlike the police, Los Pepes acted very cruelly, hovering horror on the gangsters.
The junction came on December 2, 1993. The former "cocaine king", and now the "killer of children" was blocked in one of the houses of the Los Olyolos, joint detachments of Columbia security forces, local police, Los Pepes and American agents from the NSA. A drug broger with his bodyguard was still trying to shoot, but this time the forces were unequal. Having tried to hide, Escobar got on the roof and was shot by a sniper.
As a famous drug trafficking, which in its cruelty could well compare with many bloodthirsty dictators of the 20th century, was able to remain so long, using the unprecedented support of the majority of the population? As historians believe, this phenomenon is associated with an exceptional talent for manipulating, which had an escobar. He felt well a socio-political situation that reigned then in Colombia and made a bet on the widest layer of the population - poor workers and farmers who were rushed to thread trade and industrial magnates and corrupt officials.
Escobar tried to create an image of the Columbia Robin Hood, or a canonical "gangster" from urban legends, which robs rich and bestow the poor. He brilliantly coped with this task, long years buying love of people in Medelline. During this time, millions of dollars for the construction of parks, schools, sports stadiums, churches and even housing for the poor were spent. His strategy worked and provided him with an endless influx of loyal servants, but only before that moment when he did not betray them, making these people victims of their terror against the state.
The only ones who escobar remained faithful to the very end is his wife Maria Victoria and children. He was always very kind and affectionate with them, trying to protect against any dangers associated with his "profession." According to the testimony of the son of drug trap, Juan Pablo, one day they had to fall out with her father, fleeing from government agents and some time to hide on a high mountain. Then he is without much unfortunately burn 2 million dollars to melt the hearth and cook hot food for freezing.