The newest history of many Asian countries for the European person is fading before the events of the 20th century, unfolding in the West. Meanwhile, in terms of its scale and tragedy, many of these events are not inferior to the social shocks that happened in Europe. One of these events is definitely an economic company on the industrialization of China, conducted at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. "Large jump" - namely, this event was named - contrary to the expectations of Chinese leaders not only did not lead the country to the rise, but threw it to the economy for several decades ago and led to mass victims.
War for China did not end along with the surrender of Japan and the completion of the Second World War. Power over the country wanted to receive two political parties: the PDA (Chinese Communist Party) and the Khomintan (Chinese National Party), which agreed with each other in a fierce battle. The civil war in China ended only in May 1950 by the full victory of the CCP in the financial and military support of the USSR. To the sole power in the country, Mao Zedong came to the head at the head of the People's Republic of China.
The country, ruined war, was in economic terms a pitiful spectacle - enterprises urgently needed modernization, and 90% of all production in the country accounted for the agricultural sector. Mao Zedong is a supporter of Marxism, having enjoyed the experience of industrialization of the USSR in the Stalinist era - was confident that it was possible to raise the country's economy only by rapid collectivization, and the lack of experienced specialists should be replaced by the enthusiasm of workers.
By 1958 it became clear that China was too slowly restored from the effects of long wars, so Mao Zedong decided to realize his ideas. In May 1958, at the CCP congress, a new economic course was proclaimed, called the "big jump." According to the country's leaders, the creation of folk communities will help to achieve record economic indicators and send as many enterprises for steel production as possible. In particular, according to the designated PDA, the plan already in 1958 in the country had to produce twice as many metal compared to 1957. Following the example of the USSR, the Chinese governing lot presented its "five-year plan", in which it was planned to increase the production of industrial products by 1963, and agricultural - at 2, 5 times. At the same time, steel wave should have increased from 10 million tons to 100 million tons per year. The task was clear, the goals are delivered, and the whole country with enthusiasm began to pay steel. This was facilitated by a large campaign company, deployed in the territory of the PRC.
In August 1958, 4 months after the start of the "big jump", Mao Zedong, looking at the overestimated data on the production of grain in the country, said that the country's food problem was solved, and the collected reserves are enough to ensure the population of food. In addition, the summer of 1958 was noted by good weather, so the peasants managed to collect an excellent harvest, so the problem of food was forgotten even with skeptics.
It is no secret that inspiration for the new economic policy Chairman of the CCP found in the reforms of the early USSR. It was assumed that mass peasant communes (20, 000 people each) were created throughout the country, where the property of each member will be transferred to general use. Then it was planned to make a complete refusal of money and the transition to the free livelihood system. All this was similar to a nightmare experiment, an anti-nightopia that covered the country with a population of almost 1 billion people.
In the meantime, enterprises and communes were puzzled to pay as many steel as possible. The steel workshops were built everywhere, in which the peasants after a long work in the fields melted metal. Do I need to say that yesterday's pajars have no knowledge necessary for this, and the quality of homemade stoves left much to be desired? It turned out to be the fact that the peasants produced steel even in their own homes in the furnaces, which were heated with firewood. Already by the end of August 1958, no less than 700, 000 stoves were numbered throughout the country. A active propaganda forced the peasants instead of cultivating fields to engage in metallurgy.
After the first parties of the metal fell on production, it became clear that his quality does not correspond to any standards, and it is impossible to use it for industry. The situation was aggravated by many specialists from the USSR, which controlled production processes left China after the speech of Nikita Khrushchev with the exposure of the cult of Stalin's personality, which went wrong with the PDA policy.
The labor of millions of workers gave an increase in steel smelting by 45% in 1958 and by 30% in 1959. The paradox was that the steel produced was impossible to use anywhere. Only by 1960 the government became obvious that the production of poor quality was inefficiently, after which many furnaces ceased their work, and the gas fell fell even below 1958.
The situation could save the country's agriculture, but here, as part of a "big jump", unsuccessful reforms were carried out and erroneous decisions were taken. What is only worth the company for the destruction of Sparrow, when the death of hundreds of thousands of birds led to the reproduction of pest insects that destroyed the crop. In addition, some of the fields were given to the agro-industrial experiments, designed to increase yields, but in the end completely failed. Against the background of these problems in 1959 and 1960, the country struck drought.
As a result of all these factors, hunger began in the PRC. To replenish state granaries, the peasants took the last residues of food. In the party reports it was noted that food in the country is enough - after all, the granaries were full, but the real situation was deplorable: even in the most fertile province of Sichuan, the peasants died from hunger. In 1961, the death of the population acquired a threatening scale. Mao Zedong, who discovered his eyes to the unfolded catastrophe, suspended reforms in agriculture and began to purchase grain in Canada and Australia, alone discovering state granaries. But the hunger's epidemic managed to stop only a year later.
According to approximate estimates, for 4 years "Big Jump", which was supposed to withdraw China's economy to a higher level, 45 million people died. The financial losses of the PRC amounted to more than a quarter of their GDP. There was no question of any development and speech - the state in its development was discarded for several decades ago. Mao Zedong himself admitted that the reforms of the "big jump" were erroneous. But it was unlikely that he made it sincerely - ahead of the country was waiting for another more scary test called "Cultural Revolution". We will definitely tell about it in one of the following articles.