The speed of light in vacuo is 299, 792 458 m / s, and this value is a constant. Almost all modern physics was built on the immutability of the light. But not always the existing speed of light fits into the observed picture of the universe. There are still several unsolved cosmological issues, and among them should be particularly distinguished by the so-called horizon problem.
The problem of the horizon (or the problem of homogeneity) was discovered in the 1960s, when the existence of relict radiation was experimentally confirmed for the first time,. This is a uniformly filling universe microwave radiation, which occurred about 300, 000 years after a large explosion. At this time, slow motion electrons began to connect with protons and alpha particles, forming atoms and moving from a plasma state into gaseous. Often this era is called "the primary recombination epoch". Echo of this event in the form of radiation comes to us to this day.
Interestingly, the relic radiation is evenly distributed in the entire observed universe and has a temperature of 2, 72548 ± 0, 00057 K. only imagine that in a huge space of the visible universe with a diameter of 93 billion light years, radiation is distributed evenly. To do this, the universe should have already had the same temperature in the primary recombination era. But for two areas located, for example, at opposite ends of each other, it would be impossible: their light and thermal radiation simply would not reach each other for such a short time.
Many physicists explain this feature to the inflationary model of the expansion of the Universe - that is, it is an accelerated expansion at an early stage of existence. During inflation, the space expanded so quickly that all field heterogeneities were smoothed, and uniformly born particles, including photons, reached the same temperature.
But not all scholars agree with such a theory, finding critical shortcomings in it: why, for example, the inhomogeneity of the field in the pre-inflationary universe was enough to disappear and not manifest themselves at current observations? In contrast to the inflationary model, a number of physicists put forward an alternative theory explaining the homogeneity and the isotropy of relic radiation. In their opinion, the speed of light is 13 billion years ago was 60 times higher than the current. This explains why in the early universe the temperature was able to stabilize so fast.
One of the most famous scientists supporting the theory of variable speed of light is Juan Magyju, who defends this idea in the scientific world since 1998. The scientist believes that the theory of variable speed can be experimentally confirmed.
In his study, Zhuan, together with his colleague Andreas Albrecht, based on the value of the speed of light in the early universe, calculated the so-called spectral index - the indicator of the degree of dependence of the spectral density of the flow from the frequency. As a result, scientists got a value of 0, 96478, which practically coincides with the measurement of the spectral index of the space observatory "Planck" - 0, 967. If in the future more accurate devices show that the value of the spectral index is completely coincided with the calculations of two scientists, it may become A serious advantage of the theory of variable light speed.
At the moment, Zhuan Magejju and other supporters of young theory are looking forward to new data on relic emission. And it can happen very soon - along with the launch of the radio telescope massif in Chile, which will be directed to the study of relic radiation and search for confirmation of inflationary theory.