Islands located in the tropics are often hit by catastrophic cyclones. The winds have a tremendous speed - up to 400 kilometers per hour. When cyclones pass, a colossal amount of precipitation falls - more than 1 meter per day.
The places of origin of cyclones or typhoons, as they are called by the inhabitants of Southeast Asia, are the Antilles in the Northern Hemisphere and the island of Madagascar in the Southern Hemisphere. They also appear west of California and Mexico. A cyclone sweeping over land causes colossal destruction. Thus, the typhoon that hit Japan on September 21, 1934, destroyed 700, 000 houses, 1, 800 bridges and disabled 11, 000 ships.
The strongest winds on the globe are observed at Cape Denis (Antarctica). Their average annual speed here is 19.4 meters per second. In the most turbulent month, the average wind speed reaches 25 meters, and in the most "calm" - 11, 7 meters per second. There are 340 stormy days a year here.
In the atmosphere, at an altitude of 10-12 kilometers, a zone of winds was discovered that encircles the entire globe — the so-called "jet stream." The width of this zone is up to 2 thousand kilometers. Jet stream winds reach speeds of 300-400 kilometers per hour, and over Japan winds have been recorded at speeds of 700-800 kilometers per hour.
The warm Chinook wind blowing from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Canada sometimes causes the air temperature to rise by 30 degrees Celsius or more in a few minutes. Such a rapid increase in temperature leads to the evaporation of a snow cover 30 centimeters high without the formation of water, and in summer it sharply accelerates the ripening of fruits.