Monomakh's hat was one of the symbols of autocracy in Russia. Meanwhile, none of the historians can say for sure - when and where it came from in our state. The most popular are two versions - Mongolian and Byzantine. Moreover, the followers of any of these theories cannot yet prove their case.
- According to the supporters of the Mongolian version, Monomakh's hat was a gift of the Uzbek Khan to the Moscow prince Yuri Danilovich, the elder brother of Ivan Kalita. This assumption is supported by the fact that Yuri Danilovich was married to the sister of Khan Uzbek Konchak. And in 1325, after the tragic death of Yuri in Tver, the Moscow principality passed to Ivan.
- According to Byzantine theory, the hat was presented by Emperor Constantine IX to Vladimir Monomakh in the 11th century. On the mother's side, Vladimir Monomakh was Konstantin's grandson. But, the fact is that Constantine died in 1055, when his grandson was only two years old. Researchers claim that individual parts of the Monomakh cap were made at different times, and the difference between their manufacture is very significant. In addition, the very shape of Monomakh's cap does not very much correspond to the regalia of the rulers of Byzantium adopted at that time.
Most likely, the legend about the Byzantine origin of Monomakh's cap appeared only in the 15th-16th centuries, when the rulers of Moscow began to emphasize in every possible way their kinship with the emperors of Byzantium. And after the fall of Byzantium, Moscow began to claim the role of the "Third Rome". And the "second Rome" was, as you know, Constantinople - the capital of Byzantium.
In 1328, the spiritual letter of Ivan Kalita mentions, among other things, a certain "golden hat". It is highly likely that this document refers specifically to the cap of Monomakh.
9 interesting facts about Monomakh's hat
- In the work of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin "Boris Godunov" there is a phrase: "You are heavy Monomakh's hat." Tsar Boris pronounces it, having learned that a man has turned up posing as the son of Ivan the Terrible. This means, and for the legitimate heir to the Russian throne. This expression is used, of course, in a figurative sense, it only means that a huge burden of responsibility falls on a person burdened with power. But the weight of the headgear is really not small - 993.66 grams.
- Monomakh's hat is richly decorated with gold, pearls, precious stones and a sable edge. According to the results of the study, the most ancient parts are the crown and gold plates. But the first mentions of sable fur date back to the 17th century. Moreover, later it had to be changed at least once.
- Ivan V became the last ruler to be crowned the kingdom with the Monamakh's hat. It happened in 1682. Moreover, Ivan was weak in health and "weak in mind", as his contemporaries noted. Therefore, his younger brother, ten-year-old Peter, became co-ruler. There was a problem, how to crown two brothers at once with one Monomakh hat?
A way out was found, a copy was made for Peter by Russian craftsmen.
- The copy was named Monomakh's hat of the second outfit. It was much lighter than the original, weight, without fur, was about 600 grams. In total, about 450 rubles were spent on making a copy. Currently, both headdresses are kept in the Kremlin Armory.
- But Peter the First himself could not pass on to his descendants the original cap of Monomakh, since it was not crowned with her as a kingdom. Peter himself did not want to give them the cap of the second outfit, therefore, for his heirs, he ordered to make a crown of the European model.
- Since 1762, when Catherine II ascended the throne, the Great Imperial Crown was used during the coronation ceremony. At that time, both Monomakh's hats were kept in the Assumption Cathedral, where the coronation took place. They were exhibited in the temple as a symbol of "royal dignity".
- Monomakh's hat is one of the most valuable exhibits in the Armory. It is simply impossible to estimate its material value. Meanwhile, the Inventory of the Moscow Armory Chamber of the late nineteenth century lists the cost of almost all of the exhibits. For example, Monomakh's hat was valued at 1992 rubles. It is interesting that the copy made for the wedding of young Peter was more than twice as expensive - 4250 rubles.
- In 2016, the Central Bank issued a 3-ruble silver coin dedicated to the Kremlin Armory. This coin was minted in a circulation of only 3, 000 copies. On the reverse side there is a relief image of one of the main treasures of the Armory Chamber - the cap of Monomakh.
- Monomakh's hat could be seen more than once in films on a historical theme. Naturally, it is simply impossible to get the original for filming, therefore, a copy made by Yulia Malanchuk is kept in the collection of the Mosfilm film studio. Experts appreciate the very high quality of the master's work.