In 1902, the Tula doctor Fyodor Sergeevich Arkhangelsky took the initiative to open the first sobering-up station in the city of gunsmiths. The doctor's proposal was supported by the Tula Society of Sobriety, and on November 7, 1902, in the house of Gudkova on Rubtsovskaya Street, an institution was opened, which received the name "Shelter for the drunk and with it an outpatient clinic for alcoholics."
At the opening ceremony, Dr. Arkhangelsky made a speech in which he emphasized the need to combat alcoholism and its consequences. A few days later, an article appeared in the Tula Rumor newspaper, in which it was reported: "Tula is the first city in Russia that came up with the idea of establishing such a shelter."
The opening of the sobering-up center was purely charitable. Before his appearance, the drunks on the street were picked up by the police and taken to the police station, where they poured cold water on the drunkard. It is not surprising that many, after such a procedure, died of hypothermia. Only a year has passed since the opening of the shelter and the death rate among street drunkards has decreased by 70%.
By the way, the orphanage was far from the only charitable institution of Doctor Arkhangelsky. Earlier, on his initiative, shelters for the poor and an anti-tuberculosis dispensary were opened. Often the doctor himself paid for the medicines for his poor patients.
Initially, the shelter for alcoholics was designed for 20 beds: 12 for men and 8 for women. For cultural and educational work, a library of 300 books of various contents was collected. Books and magazines were bought with private donations, mainly from the chairman of the sobriety society - the mayor A. Lyubomudrov. He also brought a gramophone and 56 records to the orphanage. Those who were admitted to the shelter received free meals and, if necessary, first aid. With the money received from the patrons, they bought clothes and shoes for the poorest. The staff of the institution included a coachman, whose duties included trips around the city to find drunks who were unable to move independently.
In addition, clients were delivered by police and night guards, and some managed to get to the shelter on their own, hoping to get a roof over their heads and a free lunch. In the first year, more than a thousand people visited the shelter.
In 1913, Professor Arkhangelsky was awarded gold and silver medals for his initiative at a hygienic exhibition that took place in St. Petersburg. The doctor died in 1928 at the age of 73 and was buried in Tula at the All Saints Cemetery. By the way, he did not have his own family.
With the advent of a bright life in the field of the struggle for popular sobriety, little has changed. Even taking into account the fact that the production of moonshine was recognized by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee as a counter-revolutionary case. According to the decision of the provincial executive committee, those convicted of drunkenness were to be detained and subject to a fine of up to 10 rubles or imprisonment for two weeks. But how can this stop?
In 1926, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR adopted a decree, which prescribed: "to strengthen the study of alcoholism and the organization of treatment for alcoholics." And on November 14, 1931, the first sobering-up station in the USSR was opened on Marat Street in Leningrad. So the era of Soviet sobering-up stations began ...