Filkin's diploma

In modern language, the expression "filkina gramota" means an ignorant, illiterately drawn up or unenforceable document. However, this is what Tsar Ivan the Terrible originally called the exhorting and revelatory letters of Metropolitan Philip, an unyielding old man who took it into his head to teach the insane tsar.

On March 22, 1568, Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible arrived in Moscow with his guardsmen. First of all, the sovereign went to the Assumption Cathedral for divine services. At the end of the service, the tsar approached Metropolitan Philip for a blessing, but he did not honor the tsar with his attention. Moreover, he began to denounce the king in bloody terror. After the metropolitan's speech, the tsar boiled with anger, struck the ground with his rod and said: "I was too merciful to you, Metropolitan, to your accomplices in my country, but I will make you complain."

On July 28, the tsar with a crowd of guardsmen arrived at the Novodevichy Convent, where at that time a church feast was celebrated with a procession of the cross. The service was led by Metropolitan Philip. He saw a cap on one of the tsar's guardsmen and made the remark that it was not appropriate to enter the church with a covered head. But the oprichnik quickly took off his cap, and no one betrayed him. Ivan the Terrible was angry with the saint, called him a liar and a rebel.

By order of Grozny, by the decision of the church council, Philip was defrocked. They tried to accuse Philip of witchcraft, but none of the clergy signed the accusation. Then, with the words "your volzhba will not help him, " the tsar ordered to kill the nephew of the metropolitan, and to send the elder himself to the remote Otroch Uspensky monastery in Tver.

Even from there, the already unbroken former Metropolitan Philip began to send letters to Ivan the Terrible, in which he urged the tsar to change his mind and dissolve the oprichnina. Grozny contemptuously called Philip Filka, and his letters “Filka's letters” were empty, meaningless pieces of paper.

A year later, during the Novgorod campaign in 1569, the tsar sent to the monastery to Philip Malyut Skuratov to ask for a blessing on the campaign. According to the life story, on December 23, Malyuta strangled Saint Philip:

In 1652, on the initiative of Patriarch Nikon, the relics of Philip were transferred to Moscow. He was glorified for all-Russian veneration as Saint Philip of Moscow.