The initiative for the introduction of postage stamps belonged to Roland Hill, the postmaster general of Great Britain. Before that, there was a special postage tax from addressees as a payment for postage. With the advent of stamps, postage was paid by the senders of letters by sticking stamps of a certain denomination on the envelope.
The first stamps in history called "Penny Black" were issued on May 6, 1840 in Great Britain.
In Russia, postage stamps were introduced in 1858.
In addition to postage signs, in some countries there were also telegraphic, tax, and postage stamps, but postage stamps were often used for these purposes.
At the beginning of the 20th century, meteorological indications were placed on the postmark in the United States, which were reported every morning by the meteorological station to some post offices, so that the recipient of the letter found in the postmark indications of an impending change in the weather.
Initially, the stamps were separated from the sheet using scissors, but due to the slowness of this method, they resorted to piercing the gaps between the stamps. To this day, teeth are knocked out everywhere on the edges of stamps with the help of a special stamp-perforating machine, invented in 1847 by the Irishman Henry Archer and improved by him in 1852, when the English postal office bought the right to the car from him for 4000 pounds sterling.
The glue for stamps is prepared from a mixture of gum with dextrin and glucose and is applied to stamps using machines, and glue was used at the rate of about 16 kg per 400, 000 stamps.
In almost all countries, a significant proportion of stamps are issued with the original purpose of selling them to collectors, which allows the government to generate significant revenues not directly related to postal services.
In 1847, two small stamps were issued on the island of St. Mauritius, which received from philatelists in connection with their color their own names "Blue Mauritius" and "Red Mauritius". The last time an envelope with two Mauritius was sold after a tense auction for $ 2.5 million.