Elbrus is a classic volcanic mountain. This volcano was formed at the end of the Tertiary period and its origin is associated with the rise of the Caucasian ridge. The volcanic eruptions of Elbrus were so powerful that their ashes are found in the area of Nalchik and on the slopes of Mount Mashuk near Pyatigorsk. The height of the western summit of Elbrus is 5 633 meters, the eastern one - 5 595 meters. The total area of Elbrus glaciation is 144 square kilometers. It has 22 glaciers, the largest of which is 65 meters thick.
Usually, from the majestic Elbrus, you can observe the terrain at a distance of 280 kilometers. Due to the refraction of light rays at moments of sharp changes in air density, the radius of visibility is significantly increased. A climber at the top of Elbrus can simultaneously see both the Caspian and Black Seas.