The cities of Vologda and Moscow are of the same age, the first information about them dates back to 1147. The founding of Vologda is associated with the Monk Gerasim of Vologda, who, according to legend, came in 1147 to the Vologda River, where a wooden Church of the Resurrection stood in a deep forest. Later, around this church, a city grew, which got its name from the river.
It is believed that the word "Vologda", translated from the Finno-Ugric languages, means "light", "quiet". True, a native of the Vologda province, who later became a famous Moscow journalist, Vladimir Alekseevich Gilyarovsky, held a different point of view. In his opinion, the name of this settlement comes from the word "portage" - a land isthmus between two neighboring rivers, where ships were "dragged" along the ground. But, Gilyarovsky's version did not receive support from linguists.
Currently, the population of Vologda is just over 300, 000 people. Despite the fact that the city is the center of the Vologda region, it is not the largest settlement in the region. The city of Cherepovets is 126 kilometers away, with a population of several thousand more than in Vologda itself. Cherepovets and Vologda are among the largest cities in the Russian North.
In the first years of its existence, Vologda was part of the Novgorod land. At the turn of the XII-XIII centuries. it was already a fairly large trade and craft center. The local area was rich in fish, furs and game. Since the end of the 13th century, Vologda has repeatedly found itself drawn into internecine wars. The right to own the city was contested by Novgorod, Tver and Moscow. As a result, in 1397 Vologda became part of the Moscow principality.
In the 16th century, Vologda was mentioned in his "Notes on Moscow Affairs" by Sigismund Herberstein, a diplomat of the Holy Roman Empire who had lived in our country for many years. According to Herberstein, Vologda is located in impenetrable forests and swamps. The nature itself made the Vologda fortress difficult to access, therefore, the sovereign keeps part of his treasury there. Herberstein also noted the high cost of bread in Vologda, which was much more expensive there than in Moscow.
In 1528, Prince Vasily the Third visited Vologda with his wife Elena Glinskaya. They went to the Kirillo-Belozersky monastery, where they prayed to the Lord for the grant of an heir to them. Two years later, they had a son, Ivan, who later became the first Russian tsar. He believed that it was precisely the prayers of his parents in a monastery near Vologda that he owed his birth.
Vologda developed rapidly during the reign of Ivan the Fourth (the Terrible). He strove to establish his northern residence here. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the construction of the stone Kremlin and the grandiose Sophia Cathedral began in Vologda. In 1565, by the decision of Grozny, Vologda became the center of the oprichnina.
Vologda ethnographers calculated that Peter the Great visited their city five times. But, it was precisely with the time of his reign that Vologda lost the status of a large shopping center. The construction of St. Petersburg led to the fact that the city was away from trade routes, although at the end of the 17th century it was one of the largest cities in Russia. In 1708 Vologda became part of the Arkhangelsk province. And since 1796 it has been the center of the Vologda province.
In 1911-1912. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was in exile in Vologda. He lived in a small room on the outskirts of the city. In 1937, a museum of I.V. Stalin was opened in this house. It existed for about 20 years and was closed at the time of NS Khrushchev. Since 2007, the Vologda Link Museum has been operating. It is located on the street of Maria Ulyanova, sister of V.I.Lenin. MI Ulyanova, at the same time as Stalin, was in exile in Vologda.
A whole period of the life and work of the famous Soviet poet Nikolai Rubtsov is associated with Vologda. Here he spent the last years of his life, it was in Vologda that he died tragically in January 1971 and was buried at the local Poshekhonskoye cemetery. As if the prediction of his own death was the poet's poem "I will die in Epiphany frosts." He died on the night of January 19, however, the weather was warm.
Vologda is famous for its lace. The craft has received massive development since the twenties of the XIX century. Initially, the serfs of local villages were engaged in weaving lace. The products of Vologda craftswomen have repeatedly received awards at the most prestigious international exhibitions.
A native of the Vologda land is the writer Vasily Ivanovich Belov, he was born in 1932 in the village of Timonikha, which is now part of the Vologda region. Since 1964 he lived in the regional center. Belov is one of the founders of the literary movement called "village prose". In 1997, Belov became an honorary citizen of Vologda. In the same city, the writer died on December 4, 2012.