Green card (English green card, i.e. Green card) has the official name - United States Permanent Resident Card) and is an identity card or identification card confirming the presence of a residence permit for a person who is not a US citizen.
The first green cards were white and came about as a result of the 1940 Alien Registration Act (AR-3). Originally adopted as a national defense instrument, the Act required registration from all foreigners. They could do this at post offices and their registration forms were sent to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The act of registration of foreigners did not divide foreigners into legal and illegal. All were legal and all were registered. After processing the received forms, INS sent receipts to immigrants, and in essence, these were the first "green cards" (although they had a completely different color).
After World War II, immigration resumed on a large scale, but registration of foreigners was no longer carried out at post offices, but became part of the usual procedure for processing immigration documents. This allowed the INS to get rid of a huge number of forms and work with immigrants more efficiently. It was then that the real "green cards" appeared. There were different types of immigrants - workers, students, teachers, etc., and each had its own registration document (permit) with the fixed immigration status. Those immigrants who were lucky enough to get a permanent residence permit in the United States received green receipts, or, in other words, green cards.
With the entry into force of the Internal Security Act in 1950, the new rules replaced AR-3 with Form I-151. For its color, Form I-151 was dubbed a green card, since the official name is Alien Registration Receipt Card Form I-151 - was too cumbersome. It was the first and last green registration card that existed from 1946 to 1964.
Due to the large number of fakes of the I-151 form, from 1964 to 1977, twelve other modifications of it were issued, however, none of them were already green, but the term green card remained attached to this document. In 1977, the computer-readable plastic form I-551 was introduced, which, with some improvements, is still used today. Since 1989, a new column with a validity period has appeared on this form - the card was now issued for 10 years, after which it had to be replaced with a more modern and secure one.
In December 1997, another modification was released, which is still used today. The form received a secure hologram, optical memory and became one of the most secure identification documents in the world.
Despite the fact that the Green Card is known to most people thanks to the annual Internet lottery, by winning which you can get a residence permit in the United States of America, it is issued in several cases:
1) family reunification
2) marriage with a US citizen
3) work at the request of an American employer
4) diversification lottery
Let us dwell on the last point, as the most popular for immigration for the bulk of applicants. The Diversification Lottery (DV-lottery), held annually by the US government, in order to encourage immigration to the United States of people from countries, immigrants from which are practically not represented in the United States. Visas are allocated 50-55 thousand per year, and they are divided between six geographic regions of the world. The maximum number of visas falls on regions with a lower level of immigration, but there is a quota for a single country - no more than 7% of the total number of immigrants. For countries from which more than 50 thousand immigrants have arrived in the United States over the past 5 years, no visas are issued.
Spouses of successful applicants, as well as their unmarried children under the age of 21, may also apply for visas to accompany or follow that applicant to cohabit.
For the first time in the entire space of the USSR, applications for the FY-1995 lottery were sent in 1994 and interviews were conducted in 1995.
In DV-2005, there was a fundamental change and the end of paper applications. Now all the questionnaires must be filled out on the website dvlottery.state.gov.
Thanks to the popularity of the DV lottery, a lot of intermediary firms and scammers have divorced, taking money to fill out a questionnaire on the official website of Greenacart dvlottery.state.gov, although this procedure is absolutely FREE for all applicants. Moreover, frauds with attempts to duplicate questionnaires are flourishing. As usual, African countries are leading in this: 87% of applications from natives of Nigeria and 86% of applications from natives of Bangladesh are disqualified for attempts to cheat.
22 thousand winners of the Green Card-2012 lottery did not receive visas due to an error in a computer program. The lottery results have been canceled.
On November 30, 2012, the US House of Representatives voted to abolish the annual green card immigration visa lottery. Republicans, who were the author of the bill, consider this type of lottery a breeding ground for scams and a threat to national security.