The specific name of the dandelion is lat. officinále - medicinal, the plant received from lat. officína, (workshop, pharmacy) because it was used as a medicine in antiquity. And this is not surprising, because dandelion is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, anemia, C-avitaminosis, jaundice, hemorrhoids, catarrh of the stomach and intestines, kidney stones and other diseases of the kidneys and bladder, rheumatism, as a general tonic and tonic after severe infectious diseases ...
Dandelion root, which accumulates up to 40% inulin in the fall, is known as a choleretic agent that strengthens and heals the liver. Dandelion root tincture stimulates appetite, has antispasmodic, laxative and blood-purifying properties. And with a bee sting, dandelion milky juice relieves pain and swelling.
Literary dandelion is one of the many names for this well-known plant. V.I.Dal gives the form without the diminutive suffix dandelion. The word is formed with the suffix -an (active in the northeastern and Ural dialects) from the verb form odu, equal to the literary blow. This name reflects the peculiarity of the plant - its pubescent achenes are blown away by the wind or light breeze.
Dandelion is a plant with a branched, taproot about 2 cm thick and about 60 cm long, in the upper part turning into a short, many-headed rhizome. Dandelion blooms in May, bears fruit with achenes with a white tuft from June. There are about 200 of them on one head, and the total number from a bush is about 7 thousand. Interestingly, the later the dandelion is cut into pieces, the better it takes root.
The clarity of subordination to a certain biological rhythm is clearly traced in the frequency of daily blooming of its inflorescences: at exactly 6 o'clock in the morning, the yellow baskets unfold and close at exactly 3 o'clock in the afternoon; inflorescences also react to atmospheric humidity - in cloudy weather, the baskets are also closed, protecting the pollen from moisture.
Dandelion has long been used as food by various peoples, it was consumed by both the ancient Chinese and the first settlers on the American continent. Its young leaves are practically devoid of bitterness and therefore are often used for making salads and borscht, roasted roots can serve as a surrogate for coffee, jam and wine are made from dandelion flowers, and "dandelion honey" is prepared from open buds.
Dandelion nectar honey of golden yellow color, thick consistency, with a strong aroma and sharp taste.
Dandelion is also widely popular in folk cosmetics: a mask made from its fresh leaves nourishes, moisturizes and rejuvenates the skin, and the infusion of flowers whitens freckles and age spots.
In Russia, the most common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), the leaves of which contain iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamins A, B, C, E, as well as up to 5% protein.
Dandelions, of which there are more than a thousand "small" species and about seventy so-called "large", or prefabricated, are distributed everywhere, with the exception of the highlands and the Arctic latitudes.
All parts of the plant contain a thick white milky sap, which contains rubber. Two types of dandelions - Koksagyz (Taraxacum koksaghyz) and Krymsagyz (Taraxacum hybernum) - were formerly cultivated as rubber plants. And not surprisingly, the root of kok-sagyz, translated into dry weight, accumulates up to 14% of rubber.
During the two world wars, dried dandelion roots replaced coffee for the Germans.
One of the species of dandelion - White-tongued dandelion (Taraxacum leueoglossum) is listed in the Red Book of Russia.