Yaroslavsky railway station - the creation of Fyodor Shekhtel

The idea of ​​building a railway from Moscow to Sergiev Posad belonged to Fyodor Chizhov, a Russian industrialist, public figure and scientist, professor of mathematics at Moscow State University. He believed that foreign capitalists and specialists harm the domestic industry. He was outraged by the fact that railways in Russia were being built by foreign bankers and French engineers.

Chizhov created a joint-stock company for the construction of the first Russian private railway between Moscow and Trinity-Sergiev Posad. It was to be built by Russian workers and engineers, without the participation of foreign capital, with the money of Russian merchants.

Among them was Ivan Mamontov (father of the famous philanthropist Savva Mamontov), ​​who at that time lived on 1st Meshchanskaya Street (now Prospect Mira). Every day he watched how many pilgrims and carts went to Trinity, counted their number (with the help of his sons) and decided that the construction of a railway to Sergievsky Posad would be a profitable business.

Fedor Chizhov also organized the counting of pilgrims to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra with the help of his students. They were on duty around the clock on the Troitskaya road (now the Yaroslavskoe highway), counting the number of passers-by and passers-by in both directions.

It was decided to build the station on the Kalanchevsky field (on the site of the modern Komsomolskaya square), between the Nikolaevsky (Leningradsky) station and the Red Pond (filled up in 1910). At first it was a small U-shaped white two-story building with a turret crowned with the flag of the Ministry of Railways. It was built by the St. Petersburg architect Roman Kuzmin. At first, the station was called Troitsky - it connected Moscow and the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.

The railway, opened in 1862, was consecrated by the Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna Filaret, who had never seen the railway before and believed that pilgrims should walk on foot, not travel by train.

In 1870, the line was completed to Yaroslavl, and the station was renamed Yaroslavsky. The road was built by Savva Mamontov at his own expense. However, his entrepreneurial activity ended in failure. The government was eager to take over all the railways, and a criminal case was opened against Savva Mamontov, who was bogged down in complicated monetary schemes. He was jailed. The jury passed an acquittal, but Mamontov had to sell almost everything in order to pay off creditors.

In 1895-1896, according to the project of the architect L.N. the east wing and platform of the station were rebuilt.

At the end of August 1897, an accident happened at the station. The driver of the train en route from Sergiev to Moscow accelerated so that he did not have time to slow down before approaching the station (and what Russian does not like driving fast?). For some reason, Westinghouse's automatic air brakes didn't work. Then the driver began to give signals to the conductors (conductor, press the brakes!) To apply the hand brakes, but it was too late. The locomotive with great force crashed into a baggage car at the end of the track, and all this huge mass rushed to the building of the passenger station. As a result, the wall in the office collapsed, but, fortunately, there were few casualties, and no one died, since it was early.

In 1900, the railway, which by that time had stretched to Arkhangelsk, became the property of the treasury, and the old station could no longer cope with the increased passenger traffic. The Ministry of Railways invited the outstanding architect Fyodor Shekhtel - and a new station was built according to his project.

As a result, a luxurious building in the neo-Russian style arose - with a terem roof, fortress turrets, with a high hipped left tower. The facade was decorated with majolica inserts with northern ornaments.

The pediment of the building Shekhtel decorated with the coats of arms of three large cities connected by the Yaroslavl railway: Moscow (George the Victorious), Yaroslavl (a bear with an ax) and Arkhangelsk (Mikhail Archangel striking the devil).

The interiors of the station were decorated with panels by the artist Konstantin Korovin. It was Savva Mamontov's dream to decorate railway stations with paintings by famous Russian artists. The panels depicted pictures of the harsh northern edge and were located in the niches of the waiting room. But in the 1950s. they were filmed and then transferred to the Tretyakov Gallery.

From the Kekushev project, giant columns-pillars made of Labrador have been preserved - they once stood on the platform, and now they are inscribed in the waiting room.

During the construction of the metro, the building of the Yaroslavl station was under threat of destruction - it interfered with the laying of the line, which ran just a few meters from the facade of the station. Some of the officials proposed to demolish the station, but, they say, Lazar Kaganovich himself, who at that time headed the construction of the Moscow metro, intervened in an amazing way. “You didn’t build - it’s not for you to destroy, ” he said.

Until 1922 the station was called Yaroslavsky, then it was renamed Severny, and since 1955 it again became Yaroslavsky.

In 2011, near the wall of the station, right on the sidewalk, in an inconspicuous corner, a bust of the architect Shekhtel was installed with the inscription: "Fyodor Osipovich Shekhtel, the author of the building of the Yaroslavl station."