It may seem incredible, but until 1935 (almost 20 years after the revolution) the spiers of the Kremlin towers were decorated with the Tsar's double-headed eagles. Somehow, the hands of the Soviet government did not reach them. And the operation itself to replace them was not easy. Only on October 24, 1935, the eagles were removed from the spiers and sent to be melted down. Instead, they erected five-pointed stars made of stainless steel and red copper. Electroplating workshops were specially built for gilding 130 m² of copper sheet. In the center of the star, Ural gems were laid out the symbol of Soviet Russia - a hammer and sickle. The hammer and sickle were covered with gold 20 microns thick, the pattern was not repeated on any of the stars. The star on the Spasskaya Tower was decorated with rays radiating from the center to the peaks. The beams of the star, installed on the Trinity Tower, were made in the form of ears. On the Borovitskaya Tower, the pattern repeated the contour of the five-pointed star itself. The star of the Nikolskaya Tower was smooth, without a pattern.
According to extracts from the minutes of the CEC meetings, the cost of removing the eagles from the Kremlin towers and replacing them with stars amounted to 95 thousand rubles.
The weight of each star was about a ton, therefore, the tents on the towers had to be additionally strengthened. And the upper tier of the Nikolskaya Tower turned out to be so dilapidated that it had to be completely redone. The stars were mounted on bearings, therefore, they could rotate freely in the wind, despite the large weight. Thus, by the arrangement of the stars, one can judge where the wind is blowing from.
After two years, the stars faded. It was decided to replace them by the 20th anniversary of the October Revolution. This time the stars were made of ruby glass. The composition for this glass was developed by N. Kurochkin, who at one time made a sarcophagus for Lenin's mausoleum. New stars were installed on five towers: Borovitskaya, Vodovzvodnaya, Spasskaya, Troitskaya and Nikolskaya. It took 500 square meters of ruby glass to make.
Lamps were mounted in the stars, giving uniform illumination of the entire surface. For 80 years, they were extinguished only twice: during the Great Patriotic War, when the enemy approached the capital, and in 1996, when the movie "The Barber of Siberia" was being filmed in the Kremlin.
Now the Kremlin stars can be admired only from afar. For example, the height of the Trinity Tower is 72 meters. But in 1935, before the first installation of the stars, they were exhibited in the Park to them. Gorky. Any Muscovite and guest of the capital could see them literally at arm's length.
To protect the stars from overheating, a ventilation system was developed, consisting of an air filter and two fans, one of which is a backup. The Kremlin stars are not afraid of power outages, they have built-in elements of autonomous power supply. They will burn for a long time, even if the electricity is turned off throughout Moscow.
At a cursory glance, it may seem that all the Kremlin's stars are the same size. But this is not the case. The stars of the Spasskaya and Nikolskaya towers have the largest beam span - 3 meters 75 centimeters. And the smallest star is installed on the Vodovzvodnaya tower. She has a beam span of 3 meters.
In order to replace a burnt out lamp, it is absolutely not necessary to climb the tower spire. The lamp can be lowered down a special rod. The entire replacement operation lasts no more than 30-35 minutes.
Interestingly, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kremlin stars were not dismantled, unlike other Soviet symbols in the Kremlin. On this occasion, discussions are still underway between representatives of various political factions.