Interestingly, the mass of the Sun is 99.86% of the mass of the entire solar system. The remaining 0.14% is accounted for by planets and asteroids.
Previously, it was believed that there are 9 planets in the solar system, but on August 24, 2006, the International Astronomical Union removed Pluto from the composition of the planets of the solar system, and declared it a dwarf planet. Now there are eight of them.
Almost all planets, dwarf planets and asteroids revolve around the Sun in the same direction (counterclockwise when looking at the North Pole of the Earth "from above"). This confirms the theory that the entire solar system was formed from one large cloud of gas and dust. In fact, there are exceptions here, for example, Halley's comet revolves around the Sun in the opposite direction.
Venus is the only planet in the solar system that rotates counterclockwise on its axis.
The largest meteorite that has fallen to Earth is considered to be a 2.7 meter "Hoba" discovered in Namibia. The meteorite weighs 60 tons and is 86% iron, making it the largest naturally occurring piece of iron on Earth.
The only object with an atmosphere similar to that of Earth is Titan. Contrary to popular belief, there is a body in the solar system with an atmosphere essentially similar to that of the earth. This is Saturn's moon Titan. It is larger than our Moon and is close in size to the planet Mercury. Unlike the atmospheres of Venus and Mars, which are much thicker and thinner, respectively, than Earth, and are composed of carbon dioxide, Titan's atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, which makes it similar to Earth in the early period.
Earth's gravity compresses the human spine, so when an astronaut enters space, he grows about 5.08 cm. At the same time, his heart contracts, decreases in volume, and begins to pump less blood. This is the body's response to an increase in blood volume, which requires less pressure to circulate normally.
The most important breakthrough in understanding the true structure of the solar system occurred in the 16th century, when the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus developed the heliocentric system of the world, that is, he suggested that the planets revolve around the sun, not the earth. For this no one said thanks, moreover, the followers of his teachings were persecuted by the Catholic Church for heresy. Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake, and Galileo Galilei escaped with exile.
Spacecraft from Earth have flown to all the planets of the solar system, and at the moment several spacecraft are already flying to explore the dwarf planets. We have already explored the Sun, the Moon, a lot of asteroids. Some of the first spacecraft are still in service and continue on their way. Thus, the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 satellites, moving at speeds of more than 15 km / s, in 35 years of flight have already reached the boundary of interstellar space and are at a distance of more than 120 astronomical units (18.5 billion km) from us.
The following objects of the solar system can be observed with the naked eye from Earth: the Sun, Mercury, Venus (both shortly before sunrise or just after sunset), Mars, Jupiter and Saturn; as well as the moon.
The sun is one of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way. Only a few stars are less than 10 light years from the Sun. The closest star system to us is Alpha Centauri, the light flies from us to it for 4, 4 years. The distance to Barnard's star is 5, 9 light years, then WISE 1049-5319 (6, 5 light years), Wolf359 (7, 8 light years), Laland 21185 (8, 3 light years), Sirius (8, 6 holy years), Lieuten 726-8 (8, 7 holy years) and, finally, Ross 154 (9, 7 holy years).
As the Sun burns up its reserves of hydrogen fuel, the energy released to support the core tends to be depleted, causing the Sun to contract. This increases the pressure in its interior and heats up the core, thus accelerating the combustion of fuel. As a result, the Sun becomes brighter by about ten percent every 1.1 billion years, and will become another 40% brighter over the next 3.5 billion years.
Sun matter the size of a pinhead, placed in the atmosphere of our planet, will begin to absorb oxygen at an incredible speed and in a split second will destroy all life within a radius of 160 kilometers.
Jupiter's magnetic field is so powerful that it enriches the magnetic field of our planet with billions of watts every day. Jupiter's sheer size and gravitational force acting as a protective barrier shields the Earth from space debris, pulling dangerous objects into its orbit before they reach us.
The planet with the most satellites is Jupiter. Until 2001, it was believed that Saturn, but in recent years more than 20 satellites of Jupiter have been discovered - today it has 63 known satellites, and Saturn has 60.
The most mysterious phenomenon is the temperature of the solar corona. This is the outer part of the Sun's atmosphere, and it is much higher than the temperature of the star itself, which is contrary to all the laws of physics.
The effect of tidal acceleration occurs between the planet and its satellite, which is characterized by a slowdown in the rotation of the planet around its own axis and a change in the satellite's orbit. So, every century the Earth's rotation slows down by 0.002 seconds, as a result of which the length of the day on the planet increases by ~ 15 microseconds per year, and the Moon moves away from us by 3.8 centimeters annually.
The brightest comet is Daylight Comet C / 1910 A1. Otherwise, it is called the Big January Comet, since it appeared in the sky in January 1910. The comet was visible in daylight and surpassed Venus in brightness.
The brightest planet is Venus. As you know, the planets themselves do not glow, but only reflect sunlight. Special clouds in the atmosphere of Venus reflect up to 76% of the incoming sunlight. Venus is the third brightest object visible from Earth. The first object is, of course, the Sun, and the second is the Moon. But the moon is not brighter than Venus, just closer to the earth.
When asked about the hottest planet, many will answer that it is Mercury. While this is not true, this is a fairly understandable conclusion, given that Mercury is still the closest planet to the Sun. But, as it turns out, temperatures on Venus are much higher than on Mercury, although it is farther from the Sun. The reason for this is that Mercury, due to its proximity to the Sun, does not even have an atmosphere, which is why nothing keeps heat.
What interesting facts about the solar system do you know?