Any large city sooner or later faces the problem of traffic jams. It is to combat them that the metro is being built. Moscow was no exception: on January 6, 1931, traffic on the streets of the capital was practically paralyzed due to a gigantic traffic jam. At this time, the population of the city was approaching 3, 000, 000 people. And the authorities decided: it's time to start building the subway. Although the first such project was proposed at the very beginning of the twentieth century, for a number of reasons it was not implemented. But after thirty years, it was no longer possible to postpone construction.
They got down to work immediately, four days later they began to dig trenches on Rusakovskaya Street. It was planned to make the line depth minimal, but the 26-year-old engineer Veniamin Makovsky, a recent graduate of the Leningrad Institute of Railway Engineers, published an article in the Pravda newspaper on March 1, 1932, in which he convinced that deep lines were needed. He was supported by Lazar Kaganovich, and a little later by Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin himself. Those trenches that had already been dug had to be filled urgently.
It was rumored that the construction of the circular metro line began quite by accident: Stalin was brought a report on the prospects for the development of the Moscow metro, while the "leader of the peoples" was drinking coffee at that time. He put the glass on the map of Moscow, a round trace remained on it. No one dared to argue with Joseph Vissarionovich. In fact, these are nothing more than rumors. The circular line was planned in a failed project at the beginning of the 20th century.
The first line of the Moscow metro was opened on May 15, 1935. It was on this day that the regular movement of trains from Sokolniki to Park Kultury began. Large letters "M" appeared at the stations - the symbol of the Moscow subway. A competition for the best design of the emblem was even announced among Muscovites. 97 works were received, but all of them were rejected by the commission. I had to turn to professionals. The emblem was designed by the architect Ivan Georgievich Taranov, who, in addition, designed eleven metro stations in the capital.
Even the name of the first passenger of the Moscow metro has survived in history; the worker PN Latyshev became him, who bought a ticket A№0001. They say that foreign collectors offered Latyshev serious money for this unique ticket, but he refused to sell, stating that he would keep it all his life.
Thus, the Moscow metro was opened more than eighty years ago. And since then it has worked smoothly, the only day when the metro was closed to visitors - October 16, 1941. The Germans were approaching the capital, therefore, a plan was developed according to which part of the metro was supposed to be mined, and the other half - to be flooded. At the same time, it was noted that the closure of the metro is alarming for citizens. To avoid panic, the order was canceled, and the metro continued to work the very next day.
In 1556, a white-stone Kremlin was built in Serpukhov near Moscow, on the left bank of the Nara River. It would seem, what does this have to do with the construction of Moscow in the first half of the twentieth century? The most direct, in 1934, this Kremlin was almost completely dismantled. And the stone was supposed to be used to decorate metro stations. The architectural monument was destroyed in just a year. True, there is information that most of the rubble stone was rejected and it was sold to other construction sites.
Supervised the construction of the metro in the capital Lazar Moiseevich Kaganovich. His merits were taken into account, and the metro was named after him. But only until the time when the struggle against "the consequences of the personality cult of IV Stalin" began in the country. Since Kaganovich was one of his closest associates, the metro was renamed. Now it was called the "V. I. Lenin Metropolitan". And only one station on the Sokolnicheskaya line was named after Kaganovich. But, not for long: in 1961 the station was named "Prospekt Marksa", and in 1990 it was renamed "Okhotny Ryad".
The first metro stations were a real work of art. People used to come here like to a museum. But, in the fifties, Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev said that excesses must be eliminated. The stations began to be built according to standard, rather than individual, projects.
For the first time, the names of the stations began to be announced for passengers on December 12, 1951. at first it was done by the machinists. Since 1984, when the train moves to the city center, a male voice announces, and from the center - a female one. The initiative was taken by the Society of the Blind. On the ring line, a man makes announcements when the train is moving clockwise and the woman is counterclockwise.
The Moscow metro receives about 8 million passengers every day. This is twice as much as the population of a state like Croatia. About 170, 000 people pass through the Vykhino station alone per day. There are about the same number of residents in the Far Eastern city of Ussuriisk.