Blush has been used since antiquity, trying to show the healthy color and youthfulness of the skin. The Egyptians were the first to use them, the Pharaohs rubbed their faces with special ointments that gave dark faces a light yellow tint. The lip gloss was created from fat and red ocher. This same red color was used to add a blush.
In China, it was customary for children to paint their cheeks with red paint in the form of an apple, so that the Almighty, looking at them, was pleased, seeing how joyful and healthy they are.
Interestingly, when selecting soldiers for the Roman army, attention was paid to the recruit's response to stress. If he blushed in a critical situation, then he was accepted into the active forces, and if he turned pale, then such a person was considered a coward who should have a place in the kitchen. He could not quickly and correctly react to danger due to the outflow of blood from the head.
In the Middle Ages, pale skin was a sign of noble blood, and blush was popular with women of easy virtue.
Makeup was associated with low morals, with ladies pinching their cheeks (and biting their lips) to make them blush. There was another exotic method: pieces of raw meat were applied to the cheeks for two or three hours.
During the Regency era, both men and women used blush. It was at this time that the first dandies appeared. who began to use cosmetics on an equal footing with women. The "finest" hour of blush came during the reign of Louis XIV, since the monarch himself liked to blush his cheeks, probably in order to correspond to the nickname "the sun king". Moreover, he even drew up a "tenderness map" on which colors for lips, cheeks and eyes were indicated. Satirists of that time ridiculed "young old men, whose cheeks are covered with a layer of blush, like plaster walls." In the court of Charles II, famous for its depravity, blush fulfilled another function - to hide the traces of syphilis that raged in London. In England, men continued to blush until the middle of the 19th century, although this habit was preserved only by dandies, for example, a friend of King George IV, the famous handsome Brummel, whose elegant costumes were envied by both the heir to the throne and Lord Byron. According to the testimony of contemporaries, out of the four hours allotted to them daily for the toilet, he devoted at least 20 minutes to applying blush - more than many modern coquettes.
Interestingly, expensive blush was made from carmine, while cheap ones were made from cinnabar (mercury sulfide), until doctors discovered that this cosmetics causes many diseases - tooth decay, hair loss and even blindness.
In the middle of the 18th century, the Italian physician Villani found a compromise between expensive carmine and cheap, but destructive cinnabar - dye safflower, or wild saffron, a bright yellow flower, which was used in Egypt to dye bandages during mummification. In Japan, geisha made lipstick out of it; in China, actors painted their faces - and not cheeks, but forehead and under-eyes, which was considered a hallmark of the hero. Safflower red pigment was not only harmless, but also changed shade depending on the consistency, which for the first time allowed to create pink, burgundy, brick-red blush.
From 1779 to 1789 alone, 34 types of blush were created in France: for blondes and brunettes, for a ball, for theater and horseback riding. Blush became so in demand that their production, formerly a monopoly belonging to the perfumery workshop, was allowed to be dealt with by everyone - most often they were hairdressers and pharmacy owners. Almost everyone had the same recipe: a mixture of safflower (less often carmine) with talc and fat, called fard de Paris. By the way, in many European languages, blush is called a different, but also French word - rouge, that is, red.
It was for the ruddy cheeks of the Russian beauties full of health that the red maiden was called. And they smeared their cheeks with beets to look really RED.
In the days of black and white television, announcers and actresses were made up with green blush and lipstick, as the red was too faded in black and white.
After the Second World War, France again became the trendsetter in makeup with its famous couturiers. It was there that the "hidden blush" was invented - they were applied to the powder, and a little more powdered on top, creating the effect of a slight blush that shines through the skin.
The variety of shades of blush allowed them to survive any whims of fashion. In the 50s, sports tanning gained popularity - the blush became thicker and darker. In the 60s, romantic pallor came into fashion again - blush did not lose its popularity, as before, but became lighter and more transparent. Later, bright colors came into vogue again, and nowadays, gentle ones, close to the natural complexion, have returned.